마포 풀브라이트 빌딩 지하 1층 C고사장에서 보았다. Analytical writing은 지난 시험보다 0.5점에서 1점 정도 오른 4-4.5점을 예상하고 있다. 물론 어디까지나 희망사항이다. Verbal과 Math는 지난 번보다 점수가 떨어졌다. 158/160. 초라한 성적이다. 내일은 같은 장소에서 TOEFL을 본다. 잘 봤으면 좋겠다. 올해로 영어시험을 끝내고 싶다.

 아래는 언어학습의 귀재 J형이 말씀해 주신 공부법.

단어와 숙어 구문 공부 : word smart + 해커스 수퍼보카 + time cnn 영단어를 가급적 다 외우고, 그 외에 IHT(뉴욕타임즈 세계판)이나 이코노미스트 중 하나를 택해서 딱 3~6개월만 구독하고 단어장 만들기. 신문에 나오는 모르는 단어나 표현을 쭉 정리하기.

듣기 : CNN Asia가 집에 나오면 듣고, 아니면 Fox News 앱을 다운받아서 계속 듣기. 진짜 영어 대화를 들을 수 있다는 장점이 있음. 계속 듣고 이해하려고 하다보면, 읽기랑 병행한다는 전제하에 갑자기 다 들리고 발음도 모국어 같아짐.

쓰기: 위에 단어 정리한걸 적용해서 작문을 해보고 전문 첨삭을 받기. www.essayreview.co.kr 같은 사이트 첨삭 몇번 받으면 계속해서 틀리는 부분이 발견됨. 그거 따로 정리하면 눈에 띄게 라이팅 실력이 좋아집니다. 물론 위에 단어 숙어 표현 정리가 많이 되어있고 그걸 계속 작문을 통해 써먹으려고 해야 함. 그 외에 논문이나 영문 원서, 소설 등을 사서 꾸준히 읽으면 듣기 말하기 쓰기 다 좋아짐.

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 The time has come; the plan has set.  Nothing is going to prevent me as I push myself to the limit. "You live only once," as some say and I think the maxim got the right point. I was born by chance and live, largely being exploited by my surroundings as a number of my friends do. To me, the GRE test is one of crucial keys to get me out of misery; a key to save myself. My next test is going to be on 26 Aug in Mapo. Let's crush it.


wallow 뒹굴다; 젖어 있다

inexorable 멈출 수 없는; 거침없는

roil 휘젓다; 안달나게 하다

arbiter 결정권자

dovetail 들어맞다

vivacious 명랑한; 쾌활한

interlocutor 대화자

supplication 탄원, 애원

induct 취입시키다; 입대시키다

riffraff 쓰레기, 하층민

acquit 무죄 선고하다; 능력 발휘하다

strapping 건장한

concur 동의하다; 의견의 일치를 보다

fait accompli 기정사실

to boot 그것도; moreover

entrails 내장

elope 눈맞아 달아나다

forfeit 몰수당하다 

swell with 부풀다

fumble 더듬거리다

last straw 일루의 희망

surmise 추측하다

derelict 유기된, 버려진

raucous 요란하고 거친

in cahoot(s) 한통속이 되어

fidgety 가만히 못있는

voluble 입심 좋은 

cronyism 정실인사

ricochet 맞고 튀어나오다

stentorian 우렁찬

ransack 뒤집어 엎다

corridors of power 상층부

insolent 버릇없는; 무례한

staggering 충격적인, 믿기 어려운

spate 빈발

trite 진부한

elicit 끌어내다; 알아내다

pernicious 치명적인; 악성의

connivance 방조; 묵인

unrequited 짝사랑의; 무보수의

courtesan 창녀

delectable 아주 맛있는

rave about 열심히 얘기하다

unclog 장애(방해)를 없애다

charlatan 사기꾼, 돌팔이

aver 단언하다; 주장하다

seductive 매혹적인

consecrate 축성하다

vegetate 무위도식 하다

cudgel 곤봉

incontrovertible 반박의 여지가 없는

a fit of the blues 우울한 기분

deaden 줄이다, 죽이다

nostrum 엉터리 처방

repudiate 거부하다; 부인하다

multifarious 다양한, 다채로운

allusion 암시

viz. 즉

lay hold of 잡다; 이용하다

testify to 증명하다

unwittingly 부지불식간에

debunk 폭로하다; 가면을 벗기다

not least 특히

abject 극도로 비참한

a wisp of 한 줄기의

intemperate 무절제한

toady 알랑(거리다)

squalor 불결한 상태

elate 고무하다

recant 철회하다

retract 철회하다

to the effect 라는 취지의

dabble 조금 해보다

stupendous 엄청나게 큰

abjure 포기하다

abrasive 거친, 거슬리는

spurn 일축하다

rudder 키, 방향타

affront 모욕(을 주다)

devious 기만적인; 돌아가는

scrounge 얻어내다

livid  격노한; 시퍼런

muddle 혼란스럽게 하다

relent (마침내) 도의하다; 수그러들다

be that as it may 그렇기는 하지만; 그럼에도 불구하고

in toto 완전히

terse 간결한

ignominous 수치스러운

rancid 산패한; 변질된

piecemeal 단편적인

apoplectic 졸도할 지경의

walkout 작업중단

disgorge 쏟아내다 

contravene 위반; 위배하다

assent 찬성; 승인하다

dissipation 소멸; 탕진

abut 인접해 있다

gruffness 무뚝뚝함

imbroglio 곤란

potent 강한, 힘센

heady 자극적인; 의기양양한

elide 생략하다

caprice 변덕; whim

clamor 큰 소리로 요구하다

goad 들들 볶다

not in the least 조금도; 전혀

jut 돌출하다 

exigency 급한 볼일

ilk 종류, 동류

transfix 얼어붙게 만들다

demure 얌전한

stem 막다, 저지하다

bereft of 전무한

strident 귀에 거슬리는; 단호한

polyglot 여러 언어를 쓰는

convocation 집회; 소집

concur 동의하다

clairvoyance 예지력, 신통력

superfluous 불필요한

wherewithal 돈; 수단, 기술

redound 이바지하다; 이익이 미치다

premonition 예감, 징후

expropriate 수용; 도용하다

stake a claim 권리를 주장하다

unscrupulous 거리낌없는, 비양심적인

egg on 꼬드기다; 부추기다

the nitty gritty 핵심; 요체

spurious 가짜의, 의사의

collude in 공모하다

chattel 동산, 소지품

dredge 준수하다; 건져올리다

divulge 누설하다

congenital 선천적인, 성격상의

expunge 지우다; 삭제하다

founder 실패; 침몰하다

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dissimulation 시치미 뗌; 위장, 위선

The (i) ___ with which the columnist occasionally fills her articles are so memorable that many people think of her as being far more (ii) ___ than she in fact is. harangues, censorious/diatribes, censorious

digression 여담, 탈선

accolades 포상, 칭찬

encumber 지장을 주다, 거추장스럽게 하다

- Political advertising may well be the most (i) ___ kind of advertising: political candidates are usually quite (ii) ___, yet their campaign advertisements often hide important differences behind smoke screens of smiles and empty slogans. deceptive, dissimilar/obfuscatory, dissimilar

The ambassador’s critical remarks seemed to be less a product of ___ and more the careless utterances of a fatigued or undisciplined individual. purposefulness, design

spurious 거짓된, 겉으로만 그럴싸한

obduracy 고집, 완고, 냉혹

conjecture 추측(하다)

infusion 투입

- During the recent citizen-scientist event, the amateur ___ the organizer by having the schedule of the galaxies ahead of a long time. ___ by the ___, the scientists went on to ask more-complicated questions that led to studies they had never imagined. astonished, buoyed, alacrity

lugubrious 침울한

penitent 뉘우치는, 참회하는, contrite

daunting 벅찬, 주눅이 들게 하는

- The professor's habitual air of ___ was misleading front, concealing amazing reserves of patience and a deep commitment to his students' learning. irascibility, exasperation

- Anne Carson’s book Nox is, very deliberately, ___ literary object—the opposite of an e-reader, which is designed to vanish in your palm as you read on a train. a cumbersome, an unwieldy

apprehension 우려, 불안, trepidation

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inert 기력이 없는, 비활성의

construe 이해하다, 해석하다

pillory 강력히 비난하다

be in the pillory 웃음거리가 되다

frugivorous 과일을 먹는

After rising continuously over the summer, commodity prices fell, leaving analyst wondering whether the downward trend is a turning point or merely a ___ before demand picks up in the winter months. lull, respite

lull 잠잠한 시기, 소강상태

- The recent exhibition on Dadaism is nothing if not ___, for the visual arts are currently awash in Dadaist gestures and gambits of one variety or another. timely, opportune

- Despite the general ___ of Roman archaeological studies toward the major cities and their monuments, archaeology has contributed much to a better understanding of rural developments in Roman territory. bias, orientation

- The potential reduction in water lost from the proposed reservoir from evaporation is ___ inconsequential: even the minimum projected reduction would save enough water to furnish the needs of a Denver-sized municipality. scarcely, hardly

- Our mass media are much more fascinated by bad ideas or the failure of good ones than by successes: we drown in bad news --tales of how things went wrong--but we have only the most ___ discussion on how they might go right. cursory, perfunctory

- As the study of the foundation of western Shanghai reveals, there was a sense of elegance in the refined, simple lines that characterized the entire row, bereft of the exuberant, emphatic, assertive, ornament that constituted the latest British architectural fashion, which expressed its detestation of Palladianism and neoclassicism – London’s Regent Street then being regarded as abhorrent – calling it the product of a (i) ___ “shopocracy”. The (ii) ___ of Western architectural taste – oscillating between simplicity and ornamental (iii) ___ – must have bemused Chinese observers who had long accepted that both approaches were valid and could co-exist. disdained, impermanence, exuberance

- (i) ___ may sound like the (ii) ___ novelty seeking, but in fact the latter can coexist with and balance that stick-to-it virtue strong-willed Victorians so promoted. persistence, antithesis of

- Unambiguous texts can allow their readers to (i) ___ them quickly, but ambiguous texts can have the attractive (ii) ___ of multiple possible interpretations, all of which can be considered equally (iii) ___, and none of which is the single true meaning. comprehend, allure, valid

churlish 막된, 무례한

- It would be (i) ___ not to (ii) ___ these tabloid journalists for thriving in hard times: they deserve credit for doing well in a profession in financial straits. churlish, admire

- The incumbent was so roundly trounced in the latest polls that any notion he had at winning the election was illusory, nothing more than a(n) ___. chimera

- The playwright’s approach is (i) ___ in that her works (ii) ___ the theatrical devices normally used to create drama on the stage. startling, jettison

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quotidian 일상적인, 보통의

One of the vocalists who auditioned for a leading part in the local production of Sweeney Todd seemed to prefer ___ to any attempt at producing a melody; a more unpleasant voice was hard to imagine. shrieking, caterwauling

tortuous 길고 복잡한, 우여곡절이 많은

ebb 빠지다, 썰물이 되다; 서서히 사그라지다

- The principal was clearly ___ by his stodgy reputation that he ___ to give the lecture in a chatty style. embarrassed, opted


While I was doing 지랄이, something bad happened, being installed automatically with Windows 10 in my laptop. The moment was truly a wtf, but I have managed to downgrade to 8.1 and to hide some updates which bothered me for a long time.


- Although trains may use energy more ___ than do automobiles, the latter move only when they contain at least one occupant, whereas railway carriages spend a considerable amount of time running up and down tracks ___, or nearly so. efficiently, vacant

mordant 신랄한, 통렬한, acerbic

panegyric 칭찬하는 말

vainglorious 자만심이 강한

tenor 취지, 대의

lax 느슨한, 해이한

obtrude 끼어들다, 쑥 내밀다

- This writer of fiction believed that the novelist should not ___ the narrative, and that such inconspicuousness on the part of the author would preserve the illusion of reality. obtrude into

- Flawed as it may be for it is constructed by subjective scientists, science itself has methods that help us ___ our bias and talk about objective reality with some validity. bypass, circumvent

insufferably 참을 수 없는, 견딜 수 없는

spurious 거짓된, 겉으로만 그럴싸한, forged, specious

snare 함정, 유혹, 덫

irenic 평화의

coruscate 반짝이다, 생기 넘치다

gripe 불만, 불평, grouse

limpid pellucid, 투명한, 맑은

cavalier 무신경한

- This report is admittedly ___: it is intended to suggest new lines of research, rather than deal with the subject in a ___ manner. sketchy, thorough

disquisition 논고, 논문

expunge 지우다, 삭제하다

meander 구불구불하다; 거닐다

pet theory 지론

- For decades, economists’ ideas have been (i) ___ politics. For example, economists peddled their pet theories for academical preeminence and for political appointment, while politicians (ii) ___ those theories as solutions of social problems. exploited to, promoted

engaging 호감이 가는, 매력적인

factotum 잡역부

braggart 허풍쟁이, 떠버리

cynosure 관심의 초점, 주목의 대상

anodyne 온건한

apposite 아주 적절한

commiserate 위로 (동정)를 표하다

remonstrate 항의 (불평) 하다

entrench 단단히 자리 잡게 하다

- Campus wide discussion on academic integrity can be (i) ___ by the fact that faculty and students tend to define cheating in (ii) ___ ways. Even when they concur on what cheating means, faculty and students often assign different levels of severity to specific violations. These differences can serve as a major (iii) ___ the creation of a commonly accepted set of standards of integrity that are consistently applied to all academic work within the campus community. hampered, disparate, impediment

altricial 만성의

precocial 조숙의

indefatigable 포기할 줄 모르는, unflagging

- As the study of the foundation of western Shanghai reveals, there was, a sense of elegance in the refined, simple lines that characterized the entire row, bereft of the exuberant, emphatic, assertive, ornament that constituted the latest British architectural fashion, which expressed its detestation of Palladianism and neoclassicism - London's Regent Street then being regarded as abhorrent - calling it the product of a ___ "shopocracy". The ___ of Western architectural taste - oscillating between simplicity and ornamental ___ must have bemused Chinese observers who had long accepted that both approaches were valid and could co-exist. disdained, impermanence, exuberance

- The playwright’s approach is (i) ___ in that her works (ii) ___ the theatrical devices normally used to create drama on the stage. startling, jettison

- Though extremely (i) ___ about his own plans, the man allowed his associates no such privacy and was constantly (ii) ___ information about what they intended to do next. reticent, soliciting

- The children's ___ natures were in sharp contrast to the even-tempered dispositions of their parents. petulant, choleric/mercurial, inconsistent

inscrutable 불가해한

- Unenlightened authoritarian managers rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups: a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents ___. schism

risible 비웃음을 살 만한, 우스꽝스러운

phlegmatic 침착한, 냉정한

unrelenting 끊임없는, 수그러들 줄 모르는

largess 아낌없이 줌

naivete 소박, 단순, 순진한 말

- The writer’s assignment of the critic includes personal ___ such as jibes about his physical girth and style of delivery, and is not the better for it. aspersions, slurs

aspersion 비난, 비방, 중상, slur

- Reason was once believed to be uniquely human, but lately this assumption of intellectual superiority has come under increasingly skeptical scrutiny: most researchers now at least ___ the notion that some animals can think. harbor, entertain

- Anthropologist Jane Goodall was ___ in her determination to anthropomorphize the animals she observed with such empathy, and so resisted her editors’ attempts to recast her descriptions in more dispassionate language. stalwart

- Scientists at chocolate manufactuer attempts to ___ cocoa bean’s chemical composition, so that they can ___ the taste of cocoa bean in order to ___ a failure from cocoa bean suppliers. unlock, synthesis, prevent

banter 정감 어린 농담, badinage, raillery

incontrovertible 이론의 여지가 없는

unfazed 동요하지 않는, undisturbed

- While early biographies of Florence Nightingale tended to be quite ___, Lytton Starchey’s irreverent 1918 passage about her ushered in a new era, making it acceptable, even fashionable, to criticize her. sycophantic

- The ___ with which the politician peppers her speeches are so memorable that many people think of her as being far more ___ than she in fact is. diatribes, censorious

bemoan 한탄하다

- For Plato the art of music was so ___ moral and political reality that any alteration to music system would necessarily require a corresponding political shift. But two and a half millennia later, when classical music is generally seem merely as a lifestyle accessory, Plato’s conception seems ___.To be sure, there are still people who consider classical music to be of ___ cultural importance, but few of them are able to articulate this convincingly. firmly anchored, absurd, profound

cosset 애지중지하다

- To ___ the Continental army in more ___ terms, Holly A. Mayer would have us envision a functioning community consisting not only of rank-and-file soldiers and line officers but a whole variety of noncombatants as well." comprehend, holistic


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abalone 전복

sea urchin 성게

screed 긴 글, 장광설

scintillating 재기 넘치는, 아주 재미있는

bombastic 과장한, 허풍 떠는

incisive 예리한, 날카로운

dissemble 숨기다, 가식적으로 꾸미다

- There is frequently a protracted time interval between the introduction of innovative musical composition and its public acceptance: the concert-going pubic often spurns the ___ in favor of the familiar for a prolonged period. novel, original

spurn 퇴짜 놓다, 일축하다

- So ___ is the police's corruption and ___ that it has been a tradition that every newly-appointed police chief pledges to ___ the force. persistence, incompetence, reform

vacuity 멍(청)함

paucity 소량, 부족, 결핍

vivacity 생기, 활기, 활달

vim 정력, 활기

waggish 익살스러운, 재치있는

fulsome 지나친

afforestation 숲 가꾸기, 조림

- The macromolecule RNA is common to all living beings, and DNA, which is found in all organisms except some bacteria, is almost as ___. universal, ubiquitous

outstrip 앞지르다, 능가하다, surpass

commensurate 어울리는, 상응하는, equivalent

- While polarization has its drawbacks, the alternative is often worse. The mid-20th century is sometimes remembered as an era of cozy political ___, but in fact the corridors of power echoed then with starkly disparate voices. Some officials advocated central planning of the economy in all but name; others wanted no federal safety net whatsoever. accord, consensus

rarified 고상한, 심원한, 세련된

- Despite the book has ___ language and an unabridged dictionary, I still find a lot of things about eighteenth century. rarified

contumacious 반항적인

penitential 뉘우치는

volubility 유창, 다변, 수다

- No other contemporary poet’s work has such a well-earned reputation for (i) ___, and there are few whose moral vision is so imperiously unsparing. Of late, however, the almost belligerent demands of his severe and densely forbidding poetry have taken an improbable turn. This new collection is the poet’s fourth book in six years─an ample output even for poets of sunny disposition, let alone for one of such (ii) ___ over the previous 50 years. Yet for all his newfound (iii) ___, his poetry is as thorny as ever. near impenetrability, penitential austerity, volubility

adroit 노련한

- The lady’s role in public is ___: she is an outstanding actress, wife of a diplomat, and a journalist. protean, versatile

- One of the vocalists who auditioned for a leading part in the local production of Sweeney Todd seemed to prefer ___ to any attempt at producing a melody; a more unpleasant voice was hard to imagine. shrieking, caterwauling

infelicity 불행, 불운

- The ___ with which the politician peppers her speeches are so memorable that many people think of her as being far more ___ than she in fact is. diatribes, censorious

superlative 최상의

diatribe 비판, 공격

overweening 자만에 찬, 우쭐대는

- Consumers are ___ to spend $50 to subscribe magazines, but they will ___ a few cents for reading an article. reluctant, lay out

demean 위신을 떨어뜨리다, 비하하다

extemporaneous 즉석의, 미봉책의

incorrigible 고질적인, 구제불능의

facetious 경박한, 까부는

aversion 아주 싫어함, 혐오감

- Though he said nothing, Alyosha thoroughly understood his father. The boy was far from being so ___ as everyone thought him. simple, ingenuous

mawkish 감상적인

- Despite occasional suspicions that mosquitoes were up to no good, most human observers before 1900 were remarkably unaware of the insects’ true role. They were inclined to regard mosquitoes as a nuisance—often a prodigious one—rather than the death-dealing menace they actually were. The creatures’ frailty belied their ___. lethality, fatality

paltry 보잘것없는, 쥐꼬리만한

- Since the data we have analyzed are so ___,it would be hazardous to draw a definite conclusion. meager, paltry

profligate 낭비하는

tepid 미지근한, 열의 없는

underplay 덜 중요해 보이게 만들다

petulant 심술을 부리는

clangorous 쨍그랑거리는, 시끄러운

deplorable 개탄스러운

- The concept of the Hellenistic period in ancient history has proved useful but also ___, with scholars disagreeing on the dates when the period began and ended. slippery, elusive

spurious 거짓된, 겉으로만 그럴싸한

sonorous 듣기 좋은, 낭랑한

- The lady’s role in public is ___: she is an outstanding actress, wife of a diplomat, and a journalist. protean, versatile

evanescent 쉬이 사라지는, 덧없는

transient 일시적인, 순간적인

- Some suggest that students who are granted privileges receive them because their teachers wish to make the students ___; more probably, causality flows in the opposite direction, in that teachers are likely to grant privileges to diligent students. conscientious

pellucid 깨끗한, 투명한

aglow 환히 빛나는, incandescent

coterie 집단, 일파

- With the emergence of scientific history-writing in the late nineteenth century Henry Cabot Lodge, Woodrow Wilson, Paul Leicester Ford, and others sought to dispel the myths and uncover the human being behind them, but their ___ biographies still left the father of the country marbled and remote. By the 1920s Washington had become such a distant and ___ figure that inevitably someone had to go to the other extreme and try to destroy the legend completely. Rupert Hughes and William Woodward (the inventor of the word “___”) stripped Washington of any idealism whatsoever, ridiculed the quality of his mind, and compared him to a petty banker. laudatory, deified, debunk

- Even if he wants to serve again-and given his obvious love for the job, the assumption among insiders is that he is more likely to stay than go- there is at least ___ his serving another term. incentive for

bloated 부운, 부푼; 자만한

obduracy 고집, 완고, intransigence

circuitously 우회적으로, 에둘러서

rancor 원한, 적의, 유감

limpid 맑은

propitious 좋은, 상서로운, 길조의, 유리한

torpor 무기력

ingest 삼키다, 먹다

certitude 확신

- Dr. McDonald, a famous scientist in anthropology, believes that conventional scientific inquiry is (i) ___ in its pursuit, since recently the study of social science draws on lots of statistics and probabilities; as a result, (ii) ___ of the social science takes priority due to McDonald’s conviction that moral issues should be certain rather than probable. barren, certitude

ennui 따분한, 권태감

- Invasive predators can severely reduce the population sizes of native species, or even ___ their very existence, because native prey species may not have evolved defenses against the novel predators. Thus, it is ___ to ___ the introduction of invasive species. preclude, prudent, minimize

proscribe 금(지)하다

somnolence 졸림, 비몽사몽, lethargy

flatter 아첨하다, 알랑거리다

remorse 회한

fidgety 가만히 못 있는, fret

tuberculosis 결핵

imposing 인상적인, 눈길을 끄는

- Although the claim that no one knows what dark matter is remains ___,some scientists dispute the parallel assertion that dark matter has not been detected. sound, unquestionable

- Hence, the genuinely interesting and ___ parts of the book threaten to disappear beneath repetitive and familiar depictions of the city as a really busy, crowded, and diverse place. original, innovative

- There is frequently a protracted time interval between the introduction of innovative musical composition and its public acceptance: the concert-going pubic often spurns the ___ in favor of the familiar for a prolonged period. novel, original

autumnal 성숙기 지난, 초로의

- Although field studies have linked inbreeding to declines among song sparrows and adders, some researchers argue that, in nature, inbreeding proves ___ compared to crushing blows from weather changes, the demographics of a population, and especially human encroachment. trivial, inconsequential

travesty 졸렬한 모방

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hankering 갈망

cosset 애지중지하다

menial 하찮은, 천한

As a result of lacking strong opposing organization to ___, they focused their rancor on one another at the conference where the issues were put forward and intended to be resolved. excoriate, crab

immolate 불태워죽이다

parley 교섭 (하다), 협상 (하다)

globular 공 모양의

perfidiousness 불신함, 불성실함

jubilation 승리함, 의기양양

- She demonstrates a great extent of ___, as she has traveled to many countries and places around the world than any of her kindred. peregrination

wherewithal 돈

skulduggery 야바위, 속임수

rigorous 철저한, 엄격한

obtrusive 눈에 띠는, 두드러지는

forbearance 관용, 관대

- That's all in the past. The new wing — named after a beautifully restored 17th-century cloister around which it was built — gives it the ___ to serve its visitors properly, including multiple entrances to cut down on the lines that used to snake around the building. wherewithal

Some suggest that students who are granted privileges receive them because their teachers wish to make the students ___; more probably, causality flows in the oppoiste direction, in that teachers are likely to grant privileges to diligent students. conscientious

trenchant 정곡을 찌르는, 신랄한

- Political advertising may well be the most (i) ___ kind of advertising: political candidates are usually quite (ii) ___, yet their campaign advertisements often hide important differences behind smoke screens of smiles and empty slogans. deceptive, dissimilar/deceptive, obfuscatory

effusive 야단스러운, 과장된

- Although Shakespeare received little formal education, scholarship has in recent years ___ the view that he was ___ the work of classical authors. undermined, unfamiliar with

quip 재담, 신랄한 말

drollness 우스움, 익살맞음

exonerate 무죄임을 밝혀 주다

inscrutable 불가해한

- Although an author repeats that he is a ___ uncle in his book, he makes a persuasive case to prove the safety of mutating genes to create new foods in his book. verbose, garrulous

pliant 나긋나긋한, 순종적인

debilitated 쇠약해진

fastidiousness 까다로움, 지나친 결벽

truncated 끝을 자른, 불완전한

circuitous 빙 돌아가는

meander 구불구불하다; 거닐다

reserved reticent, 말수가 적은

limpid 맑은

supplant 대신(대체)하다

obeisance 존경, 순종

- The subject who were engaged in more difficult tasks ___ deterioration in their performance over times, and therefore the need to concentrate apparently enhances long-term efficiency. evaded

- Contrary to those who fear the impact of invasive species on native plants, the biologist contend that the threat posed to biodiversity by nonnative species is often ___. For instance, a study of garlic mustard, a nonnative plant now thriving in Minnesota's oak forests, found that garlic mustard abundance in forest plots was not ___ the number of other plant species there. exaggerated, related to

- The contemporary trend whereby fashion designers flout mainstream tradition is unique only in its ___; earlier fashion designers experienced the same ___ impulse, albeit in a less extreme form. intensity, iconoclastic

improvident 앞날을 생각하지 않는

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awash with ~으로 넘쳐 나는

panegyric 칭찬하는 말 (글)

reprehensible 부끄러운, 비난받을 만한

proliferation 급증, 확산

pariah 버림받은 사람

fulminate 맹렬히 비판하다

inexplicable 불가해한

reticent 과묵한

taciturn 뚱한, 무뚝뚝한

extraneous 관련 없는

quaff 벌컥벌컥 마시다

motile 자동력있는, 운동성의

verisimilitude 그럴듯함, 신빙성

tout 장점을 내세우다, 홍보하다

bland 특징없는, 단조로운

enfetter 족쇄 채우다, 속박하다

As the finances of the energy-trading firm began unraveling, what eventually became ___ was that the company had been concocting “value” out of thin air, thanks not to the trading strategies it promoted as visionary but to financial ___ that turned a once-solid entity into the most notorious ___ in an era of corporate scandals. unmistakable boon, games, debacle

flout 어기다, 무시하다

obdurate 고집 센

sparse 드문, 희박한

scotch 방지하다, 중단시키다

flamboyant 이색적인, 대담한, 화려한

vehement 격렬한

solicitous 세심히 배려하는

cladistics 분기학

prolix  장황한, long-winded

obscurity 잊혀짐, 모호함

paltry 보잘것없는, 쥐꼬리 만한

pervasive 만연하는, 스며드는

rut 바퀴 자국, 판에 박힌 생활

- Although field studies have linked inbreeding to declines among song sparrows and adders, some researchers argue that, in nature, inbreeding proves ___ compared to crushing blows from weather changes, the demographics of a population, and especially human encroachment. frivolous, trivial, trifle, inconsequential

- Even though the municipal government was not totally ___ the positive review of the charter, the mayor nevertheless decided to veto the laws. unsympathetic with

bereft of ~을 잃고, ~을 빼앗겨서

implacable 확고한, 완강히 반대하는

- The activists’ energetic work in the service of both woman suffrage and the temperance movement in the late nineteenth century (i)___ the assertion that the two movements were (ii)___. undermines, inimical/belies, inimical

vacuous 멍청한, 얼빠진

dissemble 숨기다, 가식적으로 꾸미다

- Researchers have observed chimpanzees feigning injury in order to influence other members of the group, thus showing that the capacity to ___ is not uniquely human. dissemble

- Given children's active fantasy lives, one might think of truthfulness as ___ virtue in young children, but it turns out that lying is the more ___ skill. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else. Therefore, lying ___ cognitive development and social skills in a way that honesty simply does not. an instinctive, advanced, demands

- Although we think of truthfulness as a young child’s ___ virtue, it turns out that lying is the more ___. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else. Therefore, lying demands both advanced cognitive development and social skills that ___ simply doesn’t require. paramount, advanced skill, honesty

paucity 소량, 부족, 결핍, dearth

clot 엉기다, 응고되다

- But the ___ between the stereotype of bland Scandinavian living and ___ violence is often what makes these stories intriguing. The best pieces in the collection turn the clichés of the genre on their head. contrast, lurid/antithesis, lurid

unprepossessing 매력없는, 호감을 주지 못하는

- The son of middle-class parents who ran a local cigar shop and a mediocre student who enjoyed the soccer field more than his studies, he became an ___ man of quiet conventionality. Paul Grüninger is featured in journalist Eyal Press’s book Beautiful Souls, a study of seemingly ordinary people who exhibited extraordinary and risky courage on behalf of others. unprepossessing, unattractive

hidebound 완고한

cloy 물리다, 질리다

- Kept ___ by cloying commercial radio and clueless record executives, the American popular music scene has frequently depended on cities at the edges of the cultural map to provide a much-needed shot of ___. The momentary ___ what the next big thing is seems to come out of nowhere—as if someone blows a whistle only those in the know can hear, and suddenly record executives and journalists are crawling all over what had previously been an obscure locale. hidebound, originality, consensus about

denigrate 폄하하다

dovish 온건파의

supercilious 거만한, 남을 얕보는

fickle 변덕스러운, 변화가 심한

- Although Prime Minister's long-termed ___ political power ___ against his recent stated willingness to devolve power to local government, it is not ___ doing it. centralizing, raised doubts, precluded

pristine 아주 깨끗한, 자연 그대로의

vitriol 독설, obloquy

recrudescent 재발하는, 재연하는, resurgent

- The recent exhibition on Dadaism is nothing if not ___, for the visual arts are currently awash in Dadaist gestures and gambits of one variety or another. timely, opportune

douse 끄다, 적시다

- Many people remember a time when cutting-edge architects, who are these days treated like celebrities, had ___ relationship with the public: for much of the 1960s, big new buildings in cities were often cause for hostility, not celebration. an antagonistic, an inimical

- Miller reminded his client that labor relations are inherently ___: the interests of business owners’ interests are diametrically opposed to those of the employees. antagonistic, adversarial

- Anthropologist Jane Goodall was ___ in her determination to anthropomorphize the animals she observed with such empathy, and so resisted her editors’ attempts to recast her descriptions in more dispassionate language. stalwart

celerity 민첩함, 기민함, dispatch

credit with ~에게 ~이 있다고 믿다

- Most Capuchin monkey conflict involves such a ___ repertoire of gestural and vocal signals that it is difficult for researchers to tease apart the meanings of the individual signals. This ___ is ___ by the fact that many signals seem to shift in meaning according to the context in which they are produced and the developmental stage of the individuals producing them. rich, problem, augmented

clairvoyant 투시의, 천리안의

abet 사주하다, 교사하다

- Even though women in US would not gain right to vote until 1920, throughout the 19-century many feminist goals were gradually ___, especially the rights of married women to control their own property. realized, achieved

- He was never ___: he was nothing if not ___, so he forbore for the present to declare his passion. impetuous, circumspect/precipitate, discreet

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It was disturbing mentally because I took a Toefl test this morning. It was a waste of time, but what I should do to get out of here other than this and that (which means GRE)? I came back to my normal routine that more than 5 hours of GRE preparation a day. To whom may it concerned: to hell, ETS!


vivacity 생기, 활기

flurry 질풍; 동요케 하다, 몰아치다

stodgy 소화가 잘 안 되는; 따분한

tried-and-true 유효성이 증명된; 신뢰할 수 있는

divert 방향 바꾸게 하다, 우회시키다

epitomize 완벽한 보기이다; 전형적으로 보여주다

taxonomical 분류학의

trepidation 두려움, 공포

misgiving 의혹; 불안감

tediousness 지루함, 따분함

rapacious avaricious, greedy

circumspect 신중한

obtrusive 눈에 띄는, 두드러지는

vapidity 맛없음, 활기 없음; 지루한 말

insinuate 암시하다, 넌지시 말하다

forbear 참다, 삼가다

demur 이의를 제기하다

pitfall 위험, 곤란

- Though he said nothing, Alyosha thoroughly understood his father. The boy was far from being so ___ as everyone thought him. simple

- Even the man was reserved in his speech, he thoroughly understood his mother, which made him far from ___ as people usually thought. ingenuous, simple

- Although Emily Jane Brontë showed little hint of impassioned about gender in her life, she is anything but ___ in her work. apathetic

stem borer 명밤나비 [해충]

wasp 말벌

truffle 송로; 트뤼플 [과자]

- Usually the first to spot data that were inconsistent with other findings, in this particular experiment she let a number of ___ results slip by. incongruent, inconsistent, incongruous, anomalous

hagiographic 성인전의

reticence 과묵, 말수 적음

pilferage 좀도둑질, 장물

dismay 당황; 두려움, 절망감

- Hence, the genuinely interesting and ___ parts of the book threaten to disappear beneath repetitive and familiar depictions of the city as a really busy, crowded, and diverse place. original, innovative

- There is frequently a protracted time interval between the introduction of innovative musical composition and its public acceptance: the concert-going pubic often spurns the ___ in favor of the familiar for a prolonged period. novel, original

simmer 끓(이)다

hortatory 충고의, 권고적인

- At their best, ___ book reviews are written in defense of value and in the tacit hope that the author, having had his or her ___ pointed out, might secretly agree that the book could be improved. adverse, transgressions

- To have (i) ___ book reviews is in defense of the value and in the tacit hope that the author, having his/her (ii)___ pointed out, secretly knows that it could be improved. adverse, transgressions

sway (목적, 행동, 방침 등을) 바꾸게 하다


From Comet Origins: Blame the Solar Nebula! by Greg (2010).



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I could not put posts for two days in a low since I was busy; occupied with other things like Toefl and such and such. This is not for making an excuse, or begging something from someone. I just hate here where you would get just 6,000 some thousand Korean won for working an hour. Of course, this is not the case for me because I have no job, even a temporary, let alone a permanent, job right now. Well, let's get started.


From The Know World by Steven Pinker (2007).


inane 어리석은, 무의미한

smidgen 아주 조금

nostrum (실패할 것 같은) 처방; 엉터리 약

misbegotten 계획을 잘못 세운; 서출의

upset the apple cart (계획 준비 등을) 망쳐놓다; 뒤엎다

engaging 호감이 가는, 매력적인

peeve 약올리다, 지분거리다, 직접거리다, 화나게 하다

in-house 내부의

gimmickry 술책 쓰기

exposition (상세한) 설명 해설

ponder 숙고하다, 곰곰히 생각하다

allusion 암시


From Tracing Oil Reserves to Their Tiny Origins by William J. Broad (2010).


zoom 붕 하고 가다; 급증하다

vignette 소품문, 짤막한 글

lumbering 느릿느릿 움직이는

bygone 지나간, 옛날의

detritus (자연발생적인) 쓰레기

seabed 해저

peer at 응시하다

outpace 앞지르다, 앞서다

sludge 진흙, 진창; 쓰레기

riddle with 벌집을 만들다


From Timeline: U.S.-Cuba Relations


hike 대폭 인상하다

spike in ~의 급등, 급증

a slew of 많은


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avid 열렬히 원하는

husk 겉껍질(을 벗기다)

lush 무성한, 우거진; 멋진

stringent 엄중한; 긴박한

gossamer 거미줄; 고운, 섬세한

adulation 과찬

salinity 염분, 염도

allusion 암시 

Through this partnership, the role of advertising in popular music culture became redefined; instead of a last resort for, and admitted compromise with regard to the creation and distribution of popular music, advertising was portrayed as a ___ of music that might otherwise be unheard. champion, advocate

wayward 다루기 힘든

simpleton 얼간이

- The center of the Orion Nebula is a ___, turbulent star factory set within a maelstrom of flowing, luminescent gas. A small portion of the entire nebula, it includes a star cluster and almost all of the light from the bright glowing clouds of gas that make up the nebula. churning, spiral

acumen 감각

acuity 명민함, 예리함

telltale 숨길 수 없는

desiccate 건조시키다

vainglorious 자만심이 강한

approbatory 찬성의, 승인의

unsympathetic 매정한, 인정 없는

perfidious 믿을 수 없는

riven 분열된, 갈라진

appositeness 적합함, 딱 들어맞음

voluptuous 관능적인; 방탕한

salacious 호색의; 음란한

- The company has received complaints from customers who have discontents with it. But smart entrepreneurs should accept all customers’ dissatisfactions with ___. They must not be annoyed or upset. equanimity

surly 성질 못된, 무례한

lurid 야한, 충격적인

largess 아낌없이 줌, 축의

sententious 무게를 잡는, 훈계조의

wistful 애석해하는, 아쉬워하는

incontrovertible 이론의 여지가 없는

malinger 꾀병을 부리다

- Because women accepted the more unattractive new industrial tasks more readily than did men, such jobs came to be regarded as female jobs. And employers, who assumed that women’s “real” aspirations were for marriage and family life, declined to pay women wages ___ those of men. Thus many lower-skilled, lower-paid, less secure jobs came to be perceived as “female.” commensurate with, equivalent to

frailty 노쇠함, 허약함

- Despite occasional suspicions that mosquitoes were up to no good, most human observers before 1900 were remarkably unaware of the insects’ true role. They were inclined to regard mosquitoes as a nuisance—often a prodigious one—rather than the death-dealing menace they actually were. The creatures’ ___ belied their ___. frailty, fatality

pilfer 빼돌리다, 좀도둑질을 하다

rarified 고상한, 심원한, 희박해진

antipathic 서로 맞지 않는

pellucid 티 하나 없이 깨끗한, 맑은

leeway 여유, 여지

mawkish 감상적인, 메스꺼운

agape (입을) 딱 벌리고

satiate 실컷 만족시키다

roister 야단스럽게 뽐내다, 으스대다

carouse 술을 마시며 흥청대다

cladistics 분기학

chaperone 샤프롱[보호자] 역할을 하다

slog 열심히 하다, 묵묵히 하다

proboscis (길고 신축성 있는) 코

prolix 장황한, verbose

- The villas and compounds that proliferated during the building boom of the 1990s were ___ , far too ___ for people of average means. opulent, expensive

bemoan 한탄하다

chariness 조심스러움, 아까워함

segue 넘어가다, 이어지다

- Nanotechnology promises more efficient and ___ solutions to environmental problems, and many others faced by humanity. After defining nanotechnology for the audience, he segued into a discussion about specific energy and environmental issues that ___ us today and will ___ us tomorrow. He spoke about the drawbacks of fossil fuels and the implications of peak oil. cutting-edge, plague, threaten

- Philosophy is not some ___ field important only to old men in ivory towers. It should promote well-being of people in connection with their aspects of life. recondite, esoteric

- The activists’ energetic work in the service of both woman suffrage and the temperance movement in the late nineteenth century (i) ___ the assertion that the two movements were (ii) ___. undermines, inimical

unvaried 변화가 없는, 단조로운

- A particular bacterium that has never encountered a particular virus will usually succumb to it, a ___ that may, surprisingly, be beneficial to the colony in which the bacterium lives. susceptibility, characteristic

- Usually the first to spot data that were inconsistent with other findings, in this particular experiment she let a number of ___ results slip by. incongruent, anomalous

tepid 열의 없는, 미지근한

protean 변화무쌍한

- The scientists have ___ by the facts: they traced the history of the expanding universe back almost to its very birth in the Big Bang. Unfortunately, the early universe was so ___ that we cannot observe it directly. The term " Big Bang " suggests a definite beginning a finite time ago, but the theory does not extend that far. The ultimate origin of the universe is still ___. baffled, opaque, unfathomed

torpor 무기력

vacuous 멍청한, 얼빠진

- But the ___ between the stereotype of bland Scandinavian living and ___ violence is often what makes these stories intriguing. The best pieces in the collection turn the clichés of the genre on their head. contrast, lurid/antithesis, lurid

histrionic 연극조의, 과장된

peripatetic 이동해 다니는, 소요의

snappy 짧고 분명한; 멋진

bear out ~이 사실임을 증명하다

- The movie is also refreshingly quiet, using music ___ and showing as much attention to aural nuance as it does to visual detail. sparingly, judiciously

transgress 넘어서다, 위반하다

- At their best, ___ book reviews are written in defense of value and in the tacit hope that the author, having had his or her ___ pointed out, might secretly agree that the book could be improved. adverse, transgression

perilous 아주 위험한

variance 변화, 변동

spurious 거짓된, 겉으로만 그럴싸한; 비논리적인

deprecate 반대하다, 비난하다

oblivious 의식하지 못하는

forbearing 관대한, lenient

- Reading chunks of Shapiro’s verse in one sitting, it must be said, exposes the ___ nature of his writing: scads of poems are too glancing to strike a nerve, scarcely worth a second reading. indiscreet, scattershot

- Given the ___ of solid case studies of environmental degradation, this new case study adds little to our knowledge of the field. plethora, surfeit

- It is hardly ___ that Roland, raised to eschew ___, is building a house that is the antithesis of opulence. unexpected, asceticism

- In ''The First Poets,'' however, Schmidt seems ___ of his opinions. He is excessively ___ to authorities, even when gently rejecting their views. It is always a pleasure to encounter the lucid, astute prose of the late Sir Cecil Maurice Bowra (Schmidt's don at Oxford), but this book is ___ too many pedestrian quotations from academics past and present. Whenever he is front and center, Schmidt himself is a fascinating guide who wins the reader's trust. less confident, deferential, clogged with

- Learning is ___, which is why in any text-based subject, reading is usually more ___ than watching a DVD. The more passive the student can be, the more the information simply passes over the mind, rather than entering it. participatory, educative

- Although the progress of chemistry is not the greatest, it ___ the dullness that most progress of science is associated with. belies, contradicts

- For Ruskin, architecture serves the community only when approached in a spirit of piety and ___. Architecture must set effective boundaries to public space, and it does so by ___ the desire to show off, to stand out, to record the artistic flair of some temporary ego. Architecture succeeds in its public task through ___ and devotion. sacrifice, relinquishing, humility

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quaint 진기한, 예스러운

reverie 몽상

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The scientist found that dust accounts for about two percent of the region. This ___ the fact that dust is only a minor constituent of the material, extremely low in density, that lies between the stars. highlights, accentuates

- But the ___ between the stereotype of bland Scandinavian living and ___ violence is often what makes these stories intriguing. The best pieces in the collection turn the clichés of the genre on their head. antithesis, lurid

- Sylvester's solemn and sagacious persona was the expression of his commitment; a ___ which could be intimidating. He slowed down conversation to his own disconcerting and hypnotic pace. gravitas

- So in essence, the more sanguine and exceptional a child's characteristics are, the more this child is ___ by the parents. Many parents, however, are extremely ___ to mention it as it would be considered politically incorrect to admit to such a practice. favored, loath

- However, they made it clear that event the most innovative antibiotics will be made obsolete, at some point, by the ___ emergence of resistance. Therefore, the committee concluded that it is worthwhile to identify research that would help to surmount the problem of resistance or at least slow its emergence. unavoidable, inevitable

- While polarization has its drawbacks, the alternative is often worse. The mid-20th century is sometimes remembered as an era of cozy political ___, but in fact the corridors of power echoed then with starkly disparate voices. Some officials advocated central planning of the economy in all but name; others wanted no federal safety net whatsoever. consensus, accord

unprepossessing 매력 없는, 호감을 주지 못하는 

intrepid 용감무쌍한

- The son of middle-class parents who ran a local cigar shop and a mediocre student who enjoyed the soccer field more than his studies, he became an ___ man of quiet conventionality. Paul Grüninger is featured in journalist Eyal Press’s book Beautiful Souls, a study of seemingly ordinary people who exhibited extraordinary and risky courage on behalf of others. unprepossessing, unattractive

Scientists seriously worry about recent abnormal phenomena; If the ongoing connection of global warming effects and the rise of sea levels in innumerable parts of world continue, bigger changes to the planet could be ___. presaged, portended

- Invasive predators can severely reduce the population sizes of native species, or even ___ their very existence, because native prey species may not have evolved defenses against the novel predators. Thus, it is ___ to ___ the introduction of invasive species. preclude, prudent, minimize

- The Forest Service’s plan to stabilize the area, to lessen the risk from flooding and erosion, and to prevent the invasion of noxious weeds could ___. And there is a substantial body of scientific evidence to indicate that salvage logging ___ recovery goals. So some scholars have perceived that the post-fire logging ___ damage to the forest, drastically changes the plant and animal succession, and has limited, if any, ecological benefit. backfire, impedes, increases

- Philosophy is not some ___ field important only to old men in ivory towers. It should promote well-being of people in connection with their aspects of life. And it explicitly asks and answers fundamental, inescapable questions such as "How can I know something?" and "What should I do?" Without some answer to these questions, no knowledge or action is possible. recondite, esoteric

- Health and nutrition magazines tout the benefits of soybean as a ___ for women's health, hormonal problems, cancer prevention, weight loss, and many other problems. The reality, however, is that promotion of soy may be more a matter of business and marketing, rather than recommendations based on sound scientific evidence. panacea, cure-all

- Though he said nothing, Alyosha thoroughly understood his father. The boy was far from being so ___ as everyone thought him. simple

- Even the man was reserved in his speech, he thoroughly understood his mother, which made him far from ___ as people usually thought. ingenuous, simple

- Probably the most common application of lasers is their use in CD and DVD players. This ___ of laser doesn't mean laser can only be used in ___ ways. And with the dramatic growth in the applications of lasers as well as their extraordinary utilizations in scientific laboratories, industrial environments, and military purposes, many more investigators must necessarily face the matter of laser safety. everyday presence, pedestrian

- For Ruskin, architecture serves the community only when approached in a spirit of piety and ___. Architecture must set effective boundaries to public space, and it does so by ___ the desire to show off, to stand out, to record the artistic flair of some temporary ego. Architecture succeeds in its public task through ___ and devotion. sacrifice, relinquishing, humility

peregrination 긴 여행, 여정

perfidious 신뢰할 수 없는

- The researcher noted that microbes, although ___, make up far more of the living protoplasm on Earth than all humans, animals and plants combined. minuscule, diminutive

- Although we think of truthfulness as a young child’s ___ virtue, it turns out that lying is the more ___. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else. Therefore, lying demands both advanced cognitive development and social skills that ___ simply doesn’t require. paramount, advanced skill, honesty

- Given children's active fantasy lives, one might think of truthfulness as ___ virtue in young children, but it turns out that lying is the more ___skill. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else. Therefore, lying ___ cognitive development and social skills in a way that honesty simply does not. an instinctive, advanced, demands

irenic peaceful

unalloyed 순수한, neat

scandalize 분개하게 만들다

martinet 아주 엄격한 사람

gauge reckon

grooming 몸단장, 털 손질

- The playwright’s approach is (i) ___ in that her works (ii) ___ the theatrical devices normally used to create drama on the stage. startling, jettison

- There are great ___ in countries' green house gas emissions especially in per capita terms: while the United States and China are similar in aggregate emissions, United States per capita emissions are huge multiple of China's. disparities, variances

- Most Capuchin monkey conflict involves such a ___ repertoire of gestural and vocal signals that it is difficult for researchers to tease apart the meanings of the individual signals. This ___ is ___ by the fact that many signals seem to shift in meaning according to the context in which they are produced and the developmental stage of the individuals producing them. rich, problem, augmented

hanker 갈망하다

hone 연마하다, 갈다

- Western influence was particularly visible in Shanghai’s architecture and urban space, especially in the concession areas. So Western influence was abhorrent to Shanghai architecture, that’s why it is still ___ today. disdained

tenable 지지할 수 있는, 유지되는

finicky 지나치게 까다로운, 타박이 심한

smelting 제련

impassioned 열정적인, 간절한

inert 기력이 없는, 불활성의

- The (i)___ quality of much contemporary drawing may be attributable to the use of photography as a drawing shortcut. Photography has (ii)___ modern art, but when it is used as a tracing tool in order to (iii)___ the difficulties of achieving correct proportion, the resulting art often feels static and lifeless. inert, wonderfully enriched, circumvent/arid, has opened many amazing possibilities, circumvent

penchant 애호

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paltry 보잘 것 없는, 쥐꼬리 만한

- But despite its abundance and importance, the biological origin of maize has been a long-running mystery. The bright yellow, mouth-watering treat we know so well does not grow in the wild anywhere on the planet, so its ___ was not at all ___. ancestry, obvious

buoy 기분을 좋게 하다

swill guzzle, quaff, imbibe

fulcrum 지주, 받침점, 지렛목

divest 벗다, ~을 처분하다, 없애다

spell out 간결하게 설명하다

lapse into (더 나쁘거나 덜 활발한 상태에[가]) 빠지다, [되다]

bedfellow 연관성을 가진 것 [사람]

impute ~에게 돌리다, 씌우다, 전가하다

complicit 연루된, 공모한

- Precedent ___ judicial restraint and ___ a judge's ability to determine the outcome of a case in a way that he or she might choose if there were no precedent. This function of precedent gives it its moral force. promotes, constraints/promotes, limits

- To pay for the extra spending under this international poverty plan, each American would have to contribute less than the cost of buying a premium cup of coffee once a week. But financial aid is not ___, and even if the funding recommended here were to ___, the grandest objectives may well remain unfulfilled. Nonetheless, careful targeted aid can reward responsible governments, ___ individual initiative, and alleviate suffering. Many will think that's worth a cup of coffee. a panacea, materialize, encourage

- In their quest for kinder cutting, physicians increasingly rely on endoscopic surgery, replacing large scalpels and clamps with cameras and ___ tools that snake into the body through tiny holes. flexible

- Just as doctors often forget to ask patients about psychological symptoms, psychologists may treat mental troubles without considering the possibility of corporeal causes. Lately, however, some doctors and psychologists are (i) ___ this dichotomy and (ii) ___ the long-dormant discipline of somatopsychology, which centers on the effects of physical illness on mental states. question, revive

- Divided into separate essays on different aspects of Jacques-Louis David's late career, Bordes’ catalog (i) ___ a great deal of knowledge, never providing a full introduction to the painter’s life or to the period in which he lived. Yet while the book may (ii) ___ the casual reader, cognoscenti will delight in the wonderfully complete detail on each picture, not to mention the caustic little jabs at colleagues that Bordes occasionally delivers. The world of David scholarship,as befits its subject, is not a (iii) ___ place. contains, frustrate, gentle

implacable 확고한, 바꿀 수 없는

- In a field or egotists, Bloomfield is ___, often praising her competitors and punctuating her correspondence with self-deprecating remarks. unassuming, modest

vitriolic 독설에 찬

- Trying to cover the vast US history in a few hundreds pages often led critics to disregard his work, overlooking his emphasis of (i) ___ and (ii) ___. brevity, subtlety

recrudescent 재발하는

mordant acerbic

layperson 비전문가, layman

conducive to 도움이 되는

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Carmen's affection for her sister, though not ____, was too plainly greater to permit painless departure. unbounded, immoderate, unlimited, unconfined, unrestricted, unqualified

lambaste 비난하다; 때리다

boon benefit

imperturbable 차분한

censorious 대단히 비판적인

palliative 임시방편; 일시적인 처방

- The new drug was useful, but unfortunately its effect was largely (i)_____ rather than (ii)_____. palliative, curative

cavalier 건방진; 무신경한

- Although the employees' union and company management, entering into contract negotiations, both issued statements encouraging _____, acrimony between the two sides continued unabated. civility, comity

churlish 막된, 무례한

knotty complicated

inflammatory 선동적인; 염증의

- The law affirms the right to free speech and criminalizes interference with journalists' work; however, journalists reported that government officials improperly limited their access to information or provided "friendly advice" on what news should not be covered. Editors and journalists, fearful of _______, often exercised self-censorship; however, a number of publications published articles highly critical of the Government. And they have the _______ to do that. reprisal, license

apologist defender

sprawling 제멋대로 뻗어 나가는

inscrutability 헤아릴 수 없음

onerous 아주 힘든, 짐스러운

solicitous 세심히 배려하는

fickle 변덕스러운

stalwart 충실한; 충실한 일꾼

whimsical 기발한, 엉뚱한

- Anthropologist Jane Goodall was _____ in her determination to anthropomorphize the animals she observed with such empathy, and so resisted her editors' attempt to recast her descriptions in more dispassionate language. stalwart

- He was never ________, he was nothing if not _______, so he forbore for the present to declare his passion; but it seemed to him when they parted-the young lady to go down into Italy and her admirer to proceed to Geneva, where he was under bonds to join other friends that he should be romantically wretched if he were not to see her again. precipitate, discreet/impetuous, circumspect

amenable 말 잘 듣는, ~을 잘 받아들이는

pan out  전개되다, 진행되다

- With the numerous opponents of the controversial new taxation measure in such a fury, anyone who publicly advocated the measure did not fail to meet with ____ usage. severe

- The slow pace of job creation was without precedent for the period of recovery from a recession, but the conditions that conspired to cause the recession were also _______, the stock market declined sharply and rampant business investment slumped then an ensuing spate of scandals ________ public trust in the way companies were run. And yet those powerful _________ to growth, the recession proved surprisingly modest. atypical, weakened, counterforces

dejected 실의에 빠진, 낙담한

pedigree 족보

quirky 기발한, 꾀바른, 변덕스러운

- Despite her rather _________ choices, Moreland was neither a rebellious spirit nor who saw herself as anything out of the ordinary. unconventional, quirky

vapid 흥미롭지 못한

reproof 책망, 나무람

- Among the ancients, history was a literary art, as John Burrow illustrates in his fascinating compendium “A History of Histories: Epics, Chronicles, Romances and Inquiries from Herodotus and Thucydides to the Twentieth Century”. Invention was a _________ of ancient history, which was filled with long, often purely fictitious speeches of great men. It was animated by rhetoric, not by ________. Even well into the eighteenth century, not a few historians continued to understand themselves as artists, with license to invent. hallmark, evidence

- In his study of the psychology of fairy tales, Bruno Bettelheim finds this faith in steadfast in all fairy tales, the belief that "a struggle against severe difficulties in life is ___________, is an intrinsic part of human existence-- but that if one does not ____________, but steadfastly meets unexpected and often unjust hardships, one master all obstacles and at the end __________________. unavoidable, shy away, emerges victorious

- For Plato the art of music was so _________ moral and political reality that any alteration to music system would necessarily require a corresponding political shift. But two and a half millennia later, when classical music is generally seem merely as a lifestyle accessory, Plato’s conception seems _________. To be sure, there are still people who consider classical music to be of _________ cultural importance, but few of them are able to articulate this convincingly. firmly anchored, absurd, profound

- It remains to be shown how large the differences are between humans and other animals. Although Wynne claims to recognize that ________ data are available to make definitive statements, he offers them nonetheless, arriving at some sweeping generalizations. He argues for the objective study of behavior, but—ironically—much of his book serves to illustrate that science isn't value–free and that every scientist has an agenda. insufficient, meager

- It is harder to come up with a truly new ideas than to ______ it. One can go a lifetime without an original insight; but such insight, once developed, can be quickly adopted by others. disseminate, transmit

- Although we think of truthfulness as a young child’s _____ virtue, it turns out that lying is the more ________. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else. Therefore, lying demands both advanced cognitive development and social skills that ______ simply doesn’t require. paramount (or instinctive), advanced skill, honesty

- One of the vocalists who auditioned for a leading part in the local production of Sweeney Todd seemed to prefer ________ to any attempt at producing a melody; a more unpleasant voice was hard to imagine. shrieking, caterwauling

phlegmatic 침착한, 냉정한

- The children's ---------- natures were in sharp contrast to the even-tempered dispositions of their parents. mercurial, inconsistent/petulant, choleric

- Fifty pages of footnotes, some of them presenting quite lengthy bibliographies, suggest that very few pertinent sources have _____ Thompson’s search _________, the text makes it clear that his examination of these sources has been ________. eluded, moreover, exhaustive

- Given the ________ committees and the ________ nature of its investigation, it would be unreasonable to gainsay the committee’s conclusions at first glance. sterling reputation of, exhaustive

impecunious 무일푼의, 가난한

unassuming 잘난 체하지 않는

banter 농담 (하다), badinage, raillery

- Readers may initially irked by the book's apparent __________ but, once immersed in the author's prose, they may come to regard the work's _________ as an asset. aimlessness, discursion

- The ship crashed into an iceberg because it was ______ to getting close to the iceberg. gradual, imperceptible

remunerative 보수가 많은, lucrative

arthropod 절지동물

- Cryptozoology is predicated on a notion that is every bit as _________as the very quarry it aims to study: one cannot disprove the existence of that which does not exist. mysterious

- Mr. Stevens found that home schooling, far from representing (i)_____ philosophy, (ii)_____ some of the most widely accepted education ideas: that children should be treated as individuals, taught in small numbers, and given a measure of discretion over their own learning. an anomalous, emobides

- Knowing that she was _________ for her work, we were surprised when she was _________ throughout the lunch. diffident, assertiveness

- Despite a tendency to be overtly ____, the poetry of the Middle Ages often sparks the imagination and provides lively entertainment, as well as pious sentiments. didactic/preachy, sanctimonious

- Researchers have observed chimpanzees feigning injury in order to influence other members of the group, thus showing that the capacity to _________ is not uniquely human. dissemble

- Scientists seriously worry about recent abnormal phenomena; If the ongoing connection of global warming effects and the rise of sea levels in innumerable parts of world continue, bigger changes to the planet could be __________. presaged, portended

- Hitherto, because it has seemed ________ that chemistry is one of the natural sciences, historians have generally treated the foundation of chemistry professorship as an inevitable component of the progression of universities. manifest, self-evident

- The woman who brought off this signal ________ achievement, based on three separate but interwoven visit to the Balkans and published just as the Second World War was disclosing itself as conflict of ultimate horror, was born Cicely Fairfield in 1892. She demonstrated early brilliance as reviewer and journalist, soon adopting the name Rebecca West. polymathic, encyclopedic

animadversion 비난, 혹평

beguiling 묘한 매력이 있는

- Anne Carson’s book Nox is, very deliberately, _____ literary object—the opposite of an e-reader, which is designed to vanish in your palm as you read on a train. a cumbersome, an unwieldy

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be apt to be liable to, be prone to

seminal 중대한; 정액의

frivolous 경솔한; 시시한

presuppose 예상하다, 상정하다

resurgence 재기, 부활

roost 앉다, 쉬다

precipitate 느닷없는

vestigial 남아 있는

forbear 참다, 삼가다

akilter crooked, askew

transgression 위반; 범죄

perch 농엇과의 민물고기

forensic 법정의, 변론의, 토론의

hollow out ~의 속을 움푹 파내다

obscure murky

mitigate allay, assuage, mollify, palliate

forestall 미연에 방지하다, 앞질러 방해하다, encumber, stymie, thwart

sanguine 다혈질의; 명랑한, blithe, jocund, jovial, upbeat, buoyant

esoteric inscrutable, recondite

meticulous punctilious, scrupulous

mundane banal, hackneyed, pedestrian, prosaic, quotidian, trite

capricious erratic, fickle, mercurial, vagrant, whimsical

confound 혼동하다; 당황케 하다, baffle

undermine attenuate, sap, undercut

nonchalant 차분한; 태연한

taciturn reserved, reticent

garrulous loquacious, verbose; prolix

trivial negligible, nugatory, paltry, trifling

corroborate attest, confirm, demonstrate, prove, substantiate, verify

loathe abhor, abominate, detest, disgust, repulse

specious 겉만 번드르르한, 허울만 그럴 듯한

hinder discomfit, encumber, forestall, impede, preclude, stymie

spurious 사생아의, 가짜의; 비논리적인; apocryphal, bogus, counterfeit, feigned, fictitious, mendacious, sham

fastidious 까다로운; 세심한

obfuscate 혼동시키다; 당혹하게 하다, nonplus

pugnacious 호전적인, bellicose, quarrelsome, truculent, warlike

vitiate 가치를 떨어뜨리다; 망치다, 해치다

zealous avid, ardent, eager, vehement; fervent, fervid

augment aggrandize, magnify, wax

benign benignant, charitable, clement, compassionate

diffident retiring, shy

ingenuous candid, forthright, outspoken, straightforward

inimical adverse, unfavorable

judicious sagacious, sapient, sensible; advertent, circumspect, deliberate, measured, wary

obviate 제거하다

trepidation 두려움, 공포

abet 부추기다, 선동하다, foment

convoluted elaborate, intricate

deft 능숙한, 솜씨 좋은, adept, adroit, ambidextrous, dexterous

forgo do without; abstain from

inscrutable abstruse, cryptic, esoteric, recondite

pellucid 투명한, 맑은; 명백한

vindicate 정당함을 입증하다; 지지하다, 옹호하다

disinterested detached, dispassionate, equitable, impartial

distort 비틀다, deform; 왜곡하다, garble, falsify

excoriate 피부를 벗기다; 통렬히 비난하다, castigate, censure, inveigh, lambaste, rebuke

inhibit 억제하다, bridle, constrain, constrict, curb, rein, repress, restrain, subdue

laconic compendious, concise, succinct, terse

lethargic languid, torpid

phlegmatic 침착한, 냉정한

lugubrious 슬픈 듯한, 침울한, doleful, dolorous, woeful

prescient 앞을 내다보는, 선견지명이 있는

vacillate 진동하다

adulate 아첨하다, blandish, fawn, flatter, toady

disparage 깔보다, deride, mock, scoff, sneer

evanescent 사라져 가는; 덧없는, transient

extraneous 관계 없는

feckless 쓸모 없는; 무능한

intransigent dogged, intractable, obdurate, obstinate

magnanimous 도량이 큰, 관대한, lenient

obsequious fawning, sycophantic, toadying

pretentious 허세 부리는, ostentatious; 젠체 하는, affected, genteel, grandiose

scrupulous 양심적인, conscientious, upright; 세심한

tendentious 과격한, 극단적인; 편향적인

demur 이의를 제기하다; 반대하다

befuddlement 만취; 정신을 잃음

pertinacity 불요불굴

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litany 장황한 설명

grope for 모색하다, 손으로 더듬어 찾다

gloss over 용케 숨기다, 둘러대다

hark to ~에 귀를 기울이다, 기억하다

fathom 헤아리다, 가늠하다

on a par with ~와 동등하게, 동등한

sprawl 제멋대로 퍼져 나가다

harbinger 조짐

exuberant 활기 넘치는

vaunt 허풍떨다, 자랑하다

precept 수칙, 계율

tenebrous 어두운, 음침한

apotheosis 절정, 극치

wager 내기, 도박

individuate 개성을 부여하다

reprimand 질책하다

prepubescent 사춘기 전 시기의

fall through 완료되지 못하다

hail from ~ 출신이다, ~에서 태어났다

pedology 육아학; 토양학

rummage 뒤지다; 뒤지기

imbricate 겹쳐진; 겹치다

jolt 충격을 주다; 갑자기 거칠게 움직이다

emaciated 수척한, 쇠약한

chide 꾸짖다, 책망하다

eschew 피하다, 삼가다

coterminous 국경을 접한; 매우 유사한

lapse 실수, 과실; 경과; 소멸되다

sacralize 신성하게 하다

solipsistic 유아론적인

spleen 비장(脾臟); 분노

extraneous 관련 없는

suffuse 퍼지다, 번지다

in contradistinction to ~와 대조적으로

time and again 몇번이고, 되풀이해서

exegetic 해석(상)의

anesthetic 마취의; 무감각한

jarring 귀에 거슬리는

jaded 물린, 싫증난

scrupulous 세심한, 꼼꼼한

fanciful 상상의, 공상의

transmogrify 변신하다, 탈바꿈시키다

magnanimity 아량, 관대함

dissipate 소멸하다, 소멸되다

intrepid 용감무쌍한

paucity 소량, 부족, 결핍

hearth 난로; 난로 부근

disinclination 내키지 않음; 열의 부족

rapacity 강탈, 탐욕

inconclusive 결정적이 아닌

impecunious 무일푼의

diffident 조심스러운, 소심한

slapdash 되는대로 하는, 성급하게 하는

haphazard 되는대로의, 무계획적인

inimical 해로운, 반하는, 불리한

comity 예의, 예양

impassive 무표정한

insufferable 참을 수 없는, 견딜 수 없는


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vernacular 지방의, 토착의

laboriousness 힘듦, 고됨

caveat 통고, 경고

gloss 주석, 해설

continuum 연속체

tug of war 줄다리기; 주도권 다툼

microbes 미생물

taper 점점 가늘어지다

abase 강등시키다

abet 사주하다, 교사하다

abrade 마멸시키다

abscond 몰래 도망가다

hortatory 충고의, 권고적인

expiate 속죄하다

reticent 말을 잘 안 하는

gorge 잔뜩 먹다

accede 응하다

demur 이의를 제기하다

acclimate 익(히)다, 순응시키다

accost 다가가 말을 걸다

accrue 누적되다, 축적하다

lassitude 노곤함; 무기력

vagary 예측 불허의 변화

recalcitrant 저항하는; 다루기 힘든

intransigent 고집스러운; 비협조적인

acumen 감각

perspicacity 통찰력; 총명

adamant 요지부동의, 단호한

slothful 나태한




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barring ~을 제외하고, ~가 없는 한

inattentive 주의를 기울이지 않는

propitious 좋은, 유리한

derisive 조롱하는

fret about 초조해하다

snag 문제, 곤란한 일

upshot 결과, 결말

hitch 문제, 장애

wont ~하는 버릇이 있는

fecundity 생산력, 생식력

numinous 신비한

sonorous 듣기 좋은, 낭랑한

salutary 유익한

restive 가만히 못 있는

fractious 성을 잘 내는, 괴팍한

brook no 용납하지 않다

opprobrious 모욕적인, 야비한

platitudinous 평범한, 하찮은

inconsequential 중요치 않은, 하찮은

pugnacious 호전적인

truculent 반항적인, 약간 공격적인

supercilious 거만한

clamorous 떠들석한, 시끄러운

anthropogenic 인위개변의

unfeeling 무정한, 냉정한

confound 당혹하게 만들다; 틀렸음을 입증하다

unwieldy 다루기 불편한, 통제하기 힘든

evanescent 쉬이 사라지는, 덧없는

valediction 고별(사)

exculpation 변명, 변호

proscription 금지; 파문

ebullient 패기만만한

overwrought 잔뜩 긴장한

forbear 참다, 삼가다

circumspect 신중한

rambling 횡설수설하는

deprecating 강력히 반대하는; 비난조의

unassuming 잘난 체하지 않는

seditious 선동적인

boorish 상스러운, 천박한

spontaneous 자발적인, 즉흥적인

impetuous 성급한, 충동적인

pretentious 허세 부리는, 가식적인

natter 수다를 떨다

formulaic 정형화된

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debunk 틀렸음을 드러내다

slumber 잠, 수면

somnolent 지치게 만드는; 조는

lethargic 혼수상태의, 무기력한 

befuddled 정신이 없는

disarray 혼란

unruliness 고분고분하지 않음

specious 허울만 그럴 듯한

blatant 노골적인, 뻔한

reclusive 은둔한

quell 진압하다

pertain 존재하다; 적용되다

fractiousness 성마름, 까다로움

affable 상냥한, 사근사근한

unwarranted 부당한, 불필요한

accede 응하다; (왕위에) 오르다

jarring 삐걱거리는; 알력의

conciliatory 달래는, 회유하는

teem 충만하다, 풍부하다

roil 휘젓다, 혼란케 하다

countermand 철회하다

incommensurate with 어울리지 않는

parity 동등함

voluble 입심 좋은, 열변 토하는

obeisance 존경, 순종

precede 앞서다, 선행하다

torpor 무기력

quiescence 정지; 침묵

convoluted 난해한, 복잡한

prevalent 일반적인

arousal 각성; 환기; 흥분

diffident 조심스러운, 소심한

forbear 참다, 삼가다

erratic 불규칙한, 변덕스러운

diminutive 아주 작은

neophyte 초심자

honorific 존경을 나타내는

edifying 교화적인

paucity 소량; 부족, 결핍

uncanny 이상한, 묘한

verisimilitude 그럴듯함, 신빙성

sanguinity 쾌활, 낙천

conviviality 주연, 연회

ingenuity 재간, 독창성

ingenuous 순진한, 천진한

galvanize 충격요법 쓰다

laundry list 긴 목록

accentuate 강조하다, 두드러지게 하다

lurid 야한, 야단스러운

gravitas 진지함

vacuousness 공허함; 텅 빔


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perfunctory 형식적인; 겉치레의

pensiveness 수심(愁心)

drollness 익살맞음

fastidiousness 까다로움

congeniality 일치; 친화성

dilatory 미적거리는

disingenuous 솔직하지 못한

fad 유행

irk 귀찮게 하다

flippancy 경솔, 경박

discursion 산만한 이야기

tendentious 과격한, 극단적인

tendentiousness 편향적임

fervent 열렬한, 강렬한

detestation 혐오

sway 흔들다

coagulation 응고 (물), (작용)

obviate 제거; 배제하다

encomium 찬사

exhaustiveness 철저함; 소모적임

misconstrue 오해하다

skirt 두르다; 언급 피하다

inveterate 상습적인, 고질적인

blemish 티, 흠; 흠집 내다

comprehend 이해하다

struck by 감명받다; 대단히 좋아하다

stifle 억누르다, 억압하다

intransigent 고집스러운, 비협조적인

scathing 준렬한, 가차 없는

relish 즐기다, 좋아하다

insufferable 참을 수 없는

temperate 차분한; 절제된

flout 어기다, 무시하다

untenable 방어될 수 없는

efficacious 효과적인

circumvent 피하다, 면하다

intimation 넌지시 알림, 시사

adduce 제시하다

intriguing 아주 흥미로운

proprietary 전매의; 소유자의

compunction 죄책감, 거리낌

transience 덧없음, 무상

sterling 훌륭한

particularize 자세히 다루다

bleak 암울한; 스산한

undercut 약화시키다

prefigure 예시하다

inclusive 폭넓은, 포괄적인

ubiquity 도처에 있음, 편재

abstemiousness 절제함, 검소함

irascibility 성마름

contentiousness 호전적임, 논쟁적임

insouciance 태평함

inductive 귀납적인

indiscretion 무분별한 행동

prognosis 예후, 예상

warble (고음) 노래하다; 지저귀다

croon (부드럽게) 노래하다

shriek 악쓰다; 비명 지르다

caterwaul 새된 소리를 내다

pesky 성가신, 귀찮은

execrable 형편없는

eclectic 절충적인

boisterous 활기넘치는

obtuse 둔(감)한

balk 멈칫거리다; 꺼리다

revel in 한껏 즐기다

discomposure 심란, 불안

presumptuous 주제넘은, 건방진

contemptuous 경멸하는, 업신여기는

beseech 간청하다

fluster 허둥지둥하게 하다

nugatory 무가치한

ineluctable 피할 수 없는

invidious 부당한, 시샘을 받을

plangent 큰; 구슬픈

jejune 너무 단순한, 고지식한

upswing 호전; 상승

imbibe 마시다; 흡수하다

apocryphal 출처 불분명한, 사실이 아닐 듯한

senescence 노쇠

benignant 인자한, 상냥한

perceptive 통찰력 있는, 지각의

timorous 겁 많은

cowed 주눅 든

turgid 복잡한; 부어오른

expurgate 삭제하다

lackluster 광택없는; 활기없는

poised 침착한; 준비가 다 된

repulsive 역겨운

decorous 점잖은; 예의 바른

placid 얌전한; 차분한

deleterious 해로운, 유해한

pernicious 치명적인

precocity 조숙

parsimony 인색

ignoble 비열한

probity 정직성

odium 증오

florid 발그레한

inept 서투른

morose 시무룩한, 뚱한

maladroit 솜씨없는

temperament 기질

humor 기질

choleric 욱하는

extirpate 제거하다

conjecture 추측하다

augury 전조, 조짐

mystify 혼란스럽게 만들다

lachrymose 잘 우는

compelling 강렬한

niche 자리


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- I newly opened this column hoping that you and I all the Hellchosuners get the highest score in order to get out of here as soon as possible. 

- I am going to jot down contents the way I like.

- My GRE test will be in Mapo, Seoul on the 5th Jun, 2016.

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