마포 풀브라이트 빌딩 지하 1층 C고사장에서 보았다. Analytical writing은 지난 시험보다 0.5점에서 1점 정도 오른 4-4.5점을 예상하고 있다. 물론 어디까지나 희망사항이다. Verbal과 Math는 지난 번보다 점수가 떨어졌다. 158/160. 초라한 성적이다. 내일은 같은 장소에서 TOEFL을 본다. 잘 봤으면 좋겠다. 올해로 영어시험을 끝내고 싶다.

 아래는 언어학습의 귀재 J형이 말씀해 주신 공부법.

단어와 숙어 구문 공부 : word smart + 해커스 수퍼보카 + time cnn 영단어를 가급적 다 외우고, 그 외에 IHT(뉴욕타임즈 세계판)이나 이코노미스트 중 하나를 택해서 딱 3~6개월만 구독하고 단어장 만들기. 신문에 나오는 모르는 단어나 표현을 쭉 정리하기.

듣기 : CNN Asia가 집에 나오면 듣고, 아니면 Fox News 앱을 다운받아서 계속 듣기. 진짜 영어 대화를 들을 수 있다는 장점이 있음. 계속 듣고 이해하려고 하다보면, 읽기랑 병행한다는 전제하에 갑자기 다 들리고 발음도 모국어 같아짐.

쓰기: 위에 단어 정리한걸 적용해서 작문을 해보고 전문 첨삭을 받기. www.essayreview.co.kr 같은 사이트 첨삭 몇번 받으면 계속해서 틀리는 부분이 발견됨. 그거 따로 정리하면 눈에 띄게 라이팅 실력이 좋아집니다. 물론 위에 단어 숙어 표현 정리가 많이 되어있고 그걸 계속 작문을 통해 써먹으려고 해야 함. 그 외에 논문이나 영문 원서, 소설 등을 사서 꾸준히 읽으면 듣기 말하기 쓰기 다 좋아짐.

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 The time has come; the plan has set.  Nothing is going to prevent me as I push myself to the limit. "You live only once," as some say and I think the maxim got the right point. I was born by chance and live, largely being exploited by my surroundings as a number of my friends do. To me, the GRE test is one of crucial keys to get me out of misery; a key to save myself. My next test is going to be on 26 Aug in Mapo. Let's crush it.


wallow 뒹굴다; 젖어 있다

inexorable 멈출 수 없는; 거침없는

roil 휘젓다; 안달나게 하다

arbiter 결정권자

dovetail 들어맞다

vivacious 명랑한; 쾌활한

interlocutor 대화자

supplication 탄원, 애원

induct 취입시키다; 입대시키다

riffraff 쓰레기, 하층민

acquit 무죄 선고하다; 능력 발휘하다

strapping 건장한

concur 동의하다; 의견의 일치를 보다

fait accompli 기정사실

to boot 그것도; moreover

entrails 내장

elope 눈맞아 달아나다

forfeit 몰수당하다 

swell with 부풀다

fumble 더듬거리다

last straw 일루의 희망

surmise 추측하다

derelict 유기된, 버려진

raucous 요란하고 거친

in cahoot(s) 한통속이 되어

fidgety 가만히 못있는

voluble 입심 좋은 

cronyism 정실인사

ricochet 맞고 튀어나오다

stentorian 우렁찬

ransack 뒤집어 엎다

corridors of power 상층부

insolent 버릇없는; 무례한

staggering 충격적인, 믿기 어려운

spate 빈발

trite 진부한

elicit 끌어내다; 알아내다

pernicious 치명적인; 악성의

connivance 방조; 묵인

unrequited 짝사랑의; 무보수의

courtesan 창녀

delectable 아주 맛있는

rave about 열심히 얘기하다

unclog 장애(방해)를 없애다

charlatan 사기꾼, 돌팔이

aver 단언하다; 주장하다

seductive 매혹적인

consecrate 축성하다

vegetate 무위도식 하다

cudgel 곤봉

incontrovertible 반박의 여지가 없는

a fit of the blues 우울한 기분

deaden 줄이다, 죽이다

nostrum 엉터리 처방

repudiate 거부하다; 부인하다

multifarious 다양한, 다채로운

allusion 암시

viz. 즉

lay hold of 잡다; 이용하다

testify to 증명하다

unwittingly 부지불식간에

debunk 폭로하다; 가면을 벗기다

not least 특히

abject 극도로 비참한

a wisp of 한 줄기의

intemperate 무절제한

toady 알랑(거리다)

squalor 불결한 상태

elate 고무하다

recant 철회하다

retract 철회하다

to the effect 라는 취지의

dabble 조금 해보다

stupendous 엄청나게 큰

abjure 포기하다

abrasive 거친, 거슬리는

spurn 일축하다

rudder 키, 방향타

affront 모욕(을 주다)

devious 기만적인; 돌아가는

scrounge 얻어내다

livid  격노한; 시퍼런

muddle 혼란스럽게 하다

relent (마침내) 도의하다; 수그러들다

be that as it may 그렇기는 하지만; 그럼에도 불구하고

in toto 완전히

terse 간결한

ignominous 수치스러운

rancid 산패한; 변질된

piecemeal 단편적인

apoplectic 졸도할 지경의

walkout 작업중단

disgorge 쏟아내다 

contravene 위반; 위배하다

assent 찬성; 승인하다

dissipation 소멸; 탕진

abut 인접해 있다

gruffness 무뚝뚝함

imbroglio 곤란

potent 강한, 힘센

heady 자극적인; 의기양양한

elide 생략하다

caprice 변덕; whim

clamor 큰 소리로 요구하다

goad 들들 볶다

not in the least 조금도; 전혀

jut 돌출하다 

exigency 급한 볼일

ilk 종류, 동류

transfix 얼어붙게 만들다

demure 얌전한

stem 막다, 저지하다

bereft of 전무한

strident 귀에 거슬리는; 단호한

polyglot 여러 언어를 쓰는

convocation 집회; 소집

concur 동의하다

clairvoyance 예지력, 신통력

superfluous 불필요한

wherewithal 돈; 수단, 기술

redound 이바지하다; 이익이 미치다

premonition 예감, 징후

expropriate 수용; 도용하다

stake a claim 권리를 주장하다

unscrupulous 거리낌없는, 비양심적인

egg on 꼬드기다; 부추기다

the nitty gritty 핵심; 요체

spurious 가짜의, 의사의

collude in 공모하다

chattel 동산, 소지품

dredge 준수하다; 건져올리다

divulge 누설하다

congenital 선천적인, 성격상의

expunge 지우다; 삭제하다

founder 실패; 침몰하다

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dissimulation 시치미 뗌; 위장, 위선

The (i) ___ with which the columnist occasionally fills her articles are so memorable that many people think of her as being far more (ii) ___ than she in fact is. harangues, censorious/diatribes, censorious

digression 여담, 탈선

accolades 포상, 칭찬

encumber 지장을 주다, 거추장스럽게 하다

- Political advertising may well be the most (i) ___ kind of advertising: political candidates are usually quite (ii) ___, yet their campaign advertisements often hide important differences behind smoke screens of smiles and empty slogans. deceptive, dissimilar/obfuscatory, dissimilar

The ambassador’s critical remarks seemed to be less a product of ___ and more the careless utterances of a fatigued or undisciplined individual. purposefulness, design

spurious 거짓된, 겉으로만 그럴싸한

obduracy 고집, 완고, 냉혹

conjecture 추측(하다)

infusion 투입

- During the recent citizen-scientist event, the amateur ___ the organizer by having the schedule of the galaxies ahead of a long time. ___ by the ___, the scientists went on to ask more-complicated questions that led to studies they had never imagined. astonished, buoyed, alacrity

lugubrious 침울한

penitent 뉘우치는, 참회하는, contrite

daunting 벅찬, 주눅이 들게 하는

- The professor's habitual air of ___ was misleading front, concealing amazing reserves of patience and a deep commitment to his students' learning. irascibility, exasperation

- Anne Carson’s book Nox is, very deliberately, ___ literary object—the opposite of an e-reader, which is designed to vanish in your palm as you read on a train. a cumbersome, an unwieldy

apprehension 우려, 불안, trepidation

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inert 기력이 없는, 비활성의

construe 이해하다, 해석하다

pillory 강력히 비난하다

be in the pillory 웃음거리가 되다

frugivorous 과일을 먹는

After rising continuously over the summer, commodity prices fell, leaving analyst wondering whether the downward trend is a turning point or merely a ___ before demand picks up in the winter months. lull, respite

lull 잠잠한 시기, 소강상태

- The recent exhibition on Dadaism is nothing if not ___, for the visual arts are currently awash in Dadaist gestures and gambits of one variety or another. timely, opportune

- Despite the general ___ of Roman archaeological studies toward the major cities and their monuments, archaeology has contributed much to a better understanding of rural developments in Roman territory. bias, orientation

- The potential reduction in water lost from the proposed reservoir from evaporation is ___ inconsequential: even the minimum projected reduction would save enough water to furnish the needs of a Denver-sized municipality. scarcely, hardly

- Our mass media are much more fascinated by bad ideas or the failure of good ones than by successes: we drown in bad news --tales of how things went wrong--but we have only the most ___ discussion on how they might go right. cursory, perfunctory

- As the study of the foundation of western Shanghai reveals, there was a sense of elegance in the refined, simple lines that characterized the entire row, bereft of the exuberant, emphatic, assertive, ornament that constituted the latest British architectural fashion, which expressed its detestation of Palladianism and neoclassicism – London’s Regent Street then being regarded as abhorrent – calling it the product of a (i) ___ “shopocracy”. The (ii) ___ of Western architectural taste – oscillating between simplicity and ornamental (iii) ___ – must have bemused Chinese observers who had long accepted that both approaches were valid and could co-exist. disdained, impermanence, exuberance

- (i) ___ may sound like the (ii) ___ novelty seeking, but in fact the latter can coexist with and balance that stick-to-it virtue strong-willed Victorians so promoted. persistence, antithesis of

- Unambiguous texts can allow their readers to (i) ___ them quickly, but ambiguous texts can have the attractive (ii) ___ of multiple possible interpretations, all of which can be considered equally (iii) ___, and none of which is the single true meaning. comprehend, allure, valid

churlish 막된, 무례한

- It would be (i) ___ not to (ii) ___ these tabloid journalists for thriving in hard times: they deserve credit for doing well in a profession in financial straits. churlish, admire

- The incumbent was so roundly trounced in the latest polls that any notion he had at winning the election was illusory, nothing more than a(n) ___. chimera

- The playwright’s approach is (i) ___ in that her works (ii) ___ the theatrical devices normally used to create drama on the stage. startling, jettison

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quotidian 일상적인, 보통의

One of the vocalists who auditioned for a leading part in the local production of Sweeney Todd seemed to prefer ___ to any attempt at producing a melody; a more unpleasant voice was hard to imagine. shrieking, caterwauling

tortuous 길고 복잡한, 우여곡절이 많은

ebb 빠지다, 썰물이 되다; 서서히 사그라지다

- The principal was clearly ___ by his stodgy reputation that he ___ to give the lecture in a chatty style. embarrassed, opted


While I was doing 지랄이, something bad happened, being installed automatically with Windows 10 in my laptop. The moment was truly a wtf, but I have managed to downgrade to 8.1 and to hide some updates which bothered me for a long time.


- Although trains may use energy more ___ than do automobiles, the latter move only when they contain at least one occupant, whereas railway carriages spend a considerable amount of time running up and down tracks ___, or nearly so. efficiently, vacant

mordant 신랄한, 통렬한, acerbic

panegyric 칭찬하는 말

vainglorious 자만심이 강한

tenor 취지, 대의

lax 느슨한, 해이한

obtrude 끼어들다, 쑥 내밀다

- This writer of fiction believed that the novelist should not ___ the narrative, and that such inconspicuousness on the part of the author would preserve the illusion of reality. obtrude into

- Flawed as it may be for it is constructed by subjective scientists, science itself has methods that help us ___ our bias and talk about objective reality with some validity. bypass, circumvent

insufferably 참을 수 없는, 견딜 수 없는

spurious 거짓된, 겉으로만 그럴싸한, forged, specious

snare 함정, 유혹, 덫

irenic 평화의

coruscate 반짝이다, 생기 넘치다

gripe 불만, 불평, grouse

limpid pellucid, 투명한, 맑은

cavalier 무신경한

- This report is admittedly ___: it is intended to suggest new lines of research, rather than deal with the subject in a ___ manner. sketchy, thorough

disquisition 논고, 논문

expunge 지우다, 삭제하다

meander 구불구불하다; 거닐다

pet theory 지론

- For decades, economists’ ideas have been (i) ___ politics. For example, economists peddled their pet theories for academical preeminence and for political appointment, while politicians (ii) ___ those theories as solutions of social problems. exploited to, promoted

engaging 호감이 가는, 매력적인

factotum 잡역부

braggart 허풍쟁이, 떠버리

cynosure 관심의 초점, 주목의 대상

anodyne 온건한

apposite 아주 적절한

commiserate 위로 (동정)를 표하다

remonstrate 항의 (불평) 하다

entrench 단단히 자리 잡게 하다

- Campus wide discussion on academic integrity can be (i) ___ by the fact that faculty and students tend to define cheating in (ii) ___ ways. Even when they concur on what cheating means, faculty and students often assign different levels of severity to specific violations. These differences can serve as a major (iii) ___ the creation of a commonly accepted set of standards of integrity that are consistently applied to all academic work within the campus community. hampered, disparate, impediment

altricial 만성의

precocial 조숙의

indefatigable 포기할 줄 모르는, unflagging

- As the study of the foundation of western Shanghai reveals, there was, a sense of elegance in the refined, simple lines that characterized the entire row, bereft of the exuberant, emphatic, assertive, ornament that constituted the latest British architectural fashion, which expressed its detestation of Palladianism and neoclassicism - London's Regent Street then being regarded as abhorrent - calling it the product of a ___ "shopocracy". The ___ of Western architectural taste - oscillating between simplicity and ornamental ___ must have bemused Chinese observers who had long accepted that both approaches were valid and could co-exist. disdained, impermanence, exuberance

- The playwright’s approach is (i) ___ in that her works (ii) ___ the theatrical devices normally used to create drama on the stage. startling, jettison

- Though extremely (i) ___ about his own plans, the man allowed his associates no such privacy and was constantly (ii) ___ information about what they intended to do next. reticent, soliciting

- The children's ___ natures were in sharp contrast to the even-tempered dispositions of their parents. petulant, choleric/mercurial, inconsistent

inscrutable 불가해한

- Unenlightened authoritarian managers rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups: a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents ___. schism

risible 비웃음을 살 만한, 우스꽝스러운

phlegmatic 침착한, 냉정한

unrelenting 끊임없는, 수그러들 줄 모르는

largess 아낌없이 줌

naivete 소박, 단순, 순진한 말

- The writer’s assignment of the critic includes personal ___ such as jibes about his physical girth and style of delivery, and is not the better for it. aspersions, slurs

aspersion 비난, 비방, 중상, slur

- Reason was once believed to be uniquely human, but lately this assumption of intellectual superiority has come under increasingly skeptical scrutiny: most researchers now at least ___ the notion that some animals can think. harbor, entertain

- Anthropologist Jane Goodall was ___ in her determination to anthropomorphize the animals she observed with such empathy, and so resisted her editors’ attempts to recast her descriptions in more dispassionate language. stalwart

- Scientists at chocolate manufactuer attempts to ___ cocoa bean’s chemical composition, so that they can ___ the taste of cocoa bean in order to ___ a failure from cocoa bean suppliers. unlock, synthesis, prevent

banter 정감 어린 농담, badinage, raillery

incontrovertible 이론의 여지가 없는

unfazed 동요하지 않는, undisturbed

- While early biographies of Florence Nightingale tended to be quite ___, Lytton Starchey’s irreverent 1918 passage about her ushered in a new era, making it acceptable, even fashionable, to criticize her. sycophantic

- The ___ with which the politician peppers her speeches are so memorable that many people think of her as being far more ___ than she in fact is. diatribes, censorious

bemoan 한탄하다

- For Plato the art of music was so ___ moral and political reality that any alteration to music system would necessarily require a corresponding political shift. But two and a half millennia later, when classical music is generally seem merely as a lifestyle accessory, Plato’s conception seems ___.To be sure, there are still people who consider classical music to be of ___ cultural importance, but few of them are able to articulate this convincingly. firmly anchored, absurd, profound

cosset 애지중지하다

- To ___ the Continental army in more ___ terms, Holly A. Mayer would have us envision a functioning community consisting not only of rank-and-file soldiers and line officers but a whole variety of noncombatants as well." comprehend, holistic


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abalone 전복

sea urchin 성게

screed 긴 글, 장광설

scintillating 재기 넘치는, 아주 재미있는

bombastic 과장한, 허풍 떠는

incisive 예리한, 날카로운

dissemble 숨기다, 가식적으로 꾸미다

- There is frequently a protracted time interval between the introduction of innovative musical composition and its public acceptance: the concert-going pubic often spurns the ___ in favor of the familiar for a prolonged period. novel, original

spurn 퇴짜 놓다, 일축하다

- So ___ is the police's corruption and ___ that it has been a tradition that every newly-appointed police chief pledges to ___ the force. persistence, incompetence, reform

vacuity 멍(청)함

paucity 소량, 부족, 결핍

vivacity 생기, 활기, 활달

vim 정력, 활기

waggish 익살스러운, 재치있는

fulsome 지나친

afforestation 숲 가꾸기, 조림

- The macromolecule RNA is common to all living beings, and DNA, which is found in all organisms except some bacteria, is almost as ___. universal, ubiquitous

outstrip 앞지르다, 능가하다, surpass

commensurate 어울리는, 상응하는, equivalent

- While polarization has its drawbacks, the alternative is often worse. The mid-20th century is sometimes remembered as an era of cozy political ___, but in fact the corridors of power echoed then with starkly disparate voices. Some officials advocated central planning of the economy in all but name; others wanted no federal safety net whatsoever. accord, consensus

rarified 고상한, 심원한, 세련된

- Despite the book has ___ language and an unabridged dictionary, I still find a lot of things about eighteenth century. rarified

contumacious 반항적인

penitential 뉘우치는

volubility 유창, 다변, 수다

- No other contemporary poet’s work has such a well-earned reputation for (i) ___, and there are few whose moral vision is so imperiously unsparing. Of late, however, the almost belligerent demands of his severe and densely forbidding poetry have taken an improbable turn. This new collection is the poet’s fourth book in six years─an ample output even for poets of sunny disposition, let alone for one of such (ii) ___ over the previous 50 years. Yet for all his newfound (iii) ___, his poetry is as thorny as ever. near impenetrability, penitential austerity, volubility

adroit 노련한

- The lady’s role in public is ___: she is an outstanding actress, wife of a diplomat, and a journalist. protean, versatile

- One of the vocalists who auditioned for a leading part in the local production of Sweeney Todd seemed to prefer ___ to any attempt at producing a melody; a more unpleasant voice was hard to imagine. shrieking, caterwauling

infelicity 불행, 불운

- The ___ with which the politician peppers her speeches are so memorable that many people think of her as being far more ___ than she in fact is. diatribes, censorious

superlative 최상의

diatribe 비판, 공격

overweening 자만에 찬, 우쭐대는

- Consumers are ___ to spend $50 to subscribe magazines, but they will ___ a few cents for reading an article. reluctant, lay out

demean 위신을 떨어뜨리다, 비하하다

extemporaneous 즉석의, 미봉책의

incorrigible 고질적인, 구제불능의

facetious 경박한, 까부는

aversion 아주 싫어함, 혐오감

- Though he said nothing, Alyosha thoroughly understood his father. The boy was far from being so ___ as everyone thought him. simple, ingenuous

mawkish 감상적인

- Despite occasional suspicions that mosquitoes were up to no good, most human observers before 1900 were remarkably unaware of the insects’ true role. They were inclined to regard mosquitoes as a nuisance—often a prodigious one—rather than the death-dealing menace they actually were. The creatures’ frailty belied their ___. lethality, fatality

paltry 보잘것없는, 쥐꼬리만한

- Since the data we have analyzed are so ___,it would be hazardous to draw a definite conclusion. meager, paltry

profligate 낭비하는

tepid 미지근한, 열의 없는

underplay 덜 중요해 보이게 만들다

petulant 심술을 부리는

clangorous 쨍그랑거리는, 시끄러운

deplorable 개탄스러운

- The concept of the Hellenistic period in ancient history has proved useful but also ___, with scholars disagreeing on the dates when the period began and ended. slippery, elusive

spurious 거짓된, 겉으로만 그럴싸한

sonorous 듣기 좋은, 낭랑한

- The lady’s role in public is ___: she is an outstanding actress, wife of a diplomat, and a journalist. protean, versatile

evanescent 쉬이 사라지는, 덧없는

transient 일시적인, 순간적인

- Some suggest that students who are granted privileges receive them because their teachers wish to make the students ___; more probably, causality flows in the opposite direction, in that teachers are likely to grant privileges to diligent students. conscientious

pellucid 깨끗한, 투명한

aglow 환히 빛나는, incandescent

coterie 집단, 일파

- With the emergence of scientific history-writing in the late nineteenth century Henry Cabot Lodge, Woodrow Wilson, Paul Leicester Ford, and others sought to dispel the myths and uncover the human being behind them, but their ___ biographies still left the father of the country marbled and remote. By the 1920s Washington had become such a distant and ___ figure that inevitably someone had to go to the other extreme and try to destroy the legend completely. Rupert Hughes and William Woodward (the inventor of the word “___”) stripped Washington of any idealism whatsoever, ridiculed the quality of his mind, and compared him to a petty banker. laudatory, deified, debunk

- Even if he wants to serve again-and given his obvious love for the job, the assumption among insiders is that he is more likely to stay than go- there is at least ___ his serving another term. incentive for

bloated 부운, 부푼; 자만한

obduracy 고집, 완고, intransigence

circuitously 우회적으로, 에둘러서

rancor 원한, 적의, 유감

limpid 맑은

propitious 좋은, 상서로운, 길조의, 유리한

torpor 무기력

ingest 삼키다, 먹다

certitude 확신

- Dr. McDonald, a famous scientist in anthropology, believes that conventional scientific inquiry is (i) ___ in its pursuit, since recently the study of social science draws on lots of statistics and probabilities; as a result, (ii) ___ of the social science takes priority due to McDonald’s conviction that moral issues should be certain rather than probable. barren, certitude

ennui 따분한, 권태감

- Invasive predators can severely reduce the population sizes of native species, or even ___ their very existence, because native prey species may not have evolved defenses against the novel predators. Thus, it is ___ to ___ the introduction of invasive species. preclude, prudent, minimize

proscribe 금(지)하다

somnolence 졸림, 비몽사몽, lethargy

flatter 아첨하다, 알랑거리다

remorse 회한

fidgety 가만히 못 있는, fret

tuberculosis 결핵

imposing 인상적인, 눈길을 끄는

- Although the claim that no one knows what dark matter is remains ___,some scientists dispute the parallel assertion that dark matter has not been detected. sound, unquestionable

- Hence, the genuinely interesting and ___ parts of the book threaten to disappear beneath repetitive and familiar depictions of the city as a really busy, crowded, and diverse place. original, innovative

- There is frequently a protracted time interval between the introduction of innovative musical composition and its public acceptance: the concert-going pubic often spurns the ___ in favor of the familiar for a prolonged period. novel, original

autumnal 성숙기 지난, 초로의

- Although field studies have linked inbreeding to declines among song sparrows and adders, some researchers argue that, in nature, inbreeding proves ___ compared to crushing blows from weather changes, the demographics of a population, and especially human encroachment. trivial, inconsequential

travesty 졸렬한 모방

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hankering 갈망

cosset 애지중지하다

menial 하찮은, 천한

As a result of lacking strong opposing organization to ___, they focused their rancor on one another at the conference where the issues were put forward and intended to be resolved. excoriate, crab

immolate 불태워죽이다

parley 교섭 (하다), 협상 (하다)

globular 공 모양의

perfidiousness 불신함, 불성실함

jubilation 승리함, 의기양양

- She demonstrates a great extent of ___, as she has traveled to many countries and places around the world than any of her kindred. peregrination

wherewithal 돈

skulduggery 야바위, 속임수

rigorous 철저한, 엄격한

obtrusive 눈에 띠는, 두드러지는

forbearance 관용, 관대

- That's all in the past. The new wing — named after a beautifully restored 17th-century cloister around which it was built — gives it the ___ to serve its visitors properly, including multiple entrances to cut down on the lines that used to snake around the building. wherewithal

Some suggest that students who are granted privileges receive them because their teachers wish to make the students ___; more probably, causality flows in the oppoiste direction, in that teachers are likely to grant privileges to diligent students. conscientious

trenchant 정곡을 찌르는, 신랄한

- Political advertising may well be the most (i) ___ kind of advertising: political candidates are usually quite (ii) ___, yet their campaign advertisements often hide important differences behind smoke screens of smiles and empty slogans. deceptive, dissimilar/deceptive, obfuscatory

effusive 야단스러운, 과장된

- Although Shakespeare received little formal education, scholarship has in recent years ___ the view that he was ___ the work of classical authors. undermined, unfamiliar with

quip 재담, 신랄한 말

drollness 우스움, 익살맞음

exonerate 무죄임을 밝혀 주다

inscrutable 불가해한

- Although an author repeats that he is a ___ uncle in his book, he makes a persuasive case to prove the safety of mutating genes to create new foods in his book. verbose, garrulous

pliant 나긋나긋한, 순종적인

debilitated 쇠약해진

fastidiousness 까다로움, 지나친 결벽

truncated 끝을 자른, 불완전한

circuitous 빙 돌아가는

meander 구불구불하다; 거닐다

reserved reticent, 말수가 적은

limpid 맑은

supplant 대신(대체)하다

obeisance 존경, 순종

- The subject who were engaged in more difficult tasks ___ deterioration in their performance over times, and therefore the need to concentrate apparently enhances long-term efficiency. evaded

- Contrary to those who fear the impact of invasive species on native plants, the biologist contend that the threat posed to biodiversity by nonnative species is often ___. For instance, a study of garlic mustard, a nonnative plant now thriving in Minnesota's oak forests, found that garlic mustard abundance in forest plots was not ___ the number of other plant species there. exaggerated, related to

- The contemporary trend whereby fashion designers flout mainstream tradition is unique only in its ___; earlier fashion designers experienced the same ___ impulse, albeit in a less extreme form. intensity, iconoclastic

improvident 앞날을 생각하지 않는

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awash with ~으로 넘쳐 나는

panegyric 칭찬하는 말 (글)

reprehensible 부끄러운, 비난받을 만한

proliferation 급증, 확산

pariah 버림받은 사람

fulminate 맹렬히 비판하다

inexplicable 불가해한

reticent 과묵한

taciturn 뚱한, 무뚝뚝한

extraneous 관련 없는

quaff 벌컥벌컥 마시다

motile 자동력있는, 운동성의

verisimilitude 그럴듯함, 신빙성

tout 장점을 내세우다, 홍보하다

bland 특징없는, 단조로운

enfetter 족쇄 채우다, 속박하다

As the finances of the energy-trading firm began unraveling, what eventually became ___ was that the company had been concocting “value” out of thin air, thanks not to the trading strategies it promoted as visionary but to financial ___ that turned a once-solid entity into the most notorious ___ in an era of corporate scandals. unmistakable boon, games, debacle

flout 어기다, 무시하다

obdurate 고집 센

sparse 드문, 희박한

scotch 방지하다, 중단시키다

flamboyant 이색적인, 대담한, 화려한

vehement 격렬한

solicitous 세심히 배려하는

cladistics 분기학

prolix  장황한, long-winded

obscurity 잊혀짐, 모호함

paltry 보잘것없는, 쥐꼬리 만한

pervasive 만연하는, 스며드는

rut 바퀴 자국, 판에 박힌 생활

- Although field studies have linked inbreeding to declines among song sparrows and adders, some researchers argue that, in nature, inbreeding proves ___ compared to crushing blows from weather changes, the demographics of a population, and especially human encroachment. frivolous, trivial, trifle, inconsequential

- Even though the municipal government was not totally ___ the positive review of the charter, the mayor nevertheless decided to veto the laws. unsympathetic with

bereft of ~을 잃고, ~을 빼앗겨서

implacable 확고한, 완강히 반대하는

- The activists’ energetic work in the service of both woman suffrage and the temperance movement in the late nineteenth century (i)___ the assertion that the two movements were (ii)___. undermines, inimical/belies, inimical

vacuous 멍청한, 얼빠진

dissemble 숨기다, 가식적으로 꾸미다

- Researchers have observed chimpanzees feigning injury in order to influence other members of the group, thus showing that the capacity to ___ is not uniquely human. dissemble

- Given children's active fantasy lives, one might think of truthfulness as ___ virtue in young children, but it turns out that lying is the more ___ skill. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else. Therefore, lying ___ cognitive development and social skills in a way that honesty simply does not. an instinctive, advanced, demands

- Although we think of truthfulness as a young child’s ___ virtue, it turns out that lying is the more ___. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else. Therefore, lying demands both advanced cognitive development and social skills that ___ simply doesn’t require. paramount, advanced skill, honesty

paucity 소량, 부족, 결핍, dearth

clot 엉기다, 응고되다

- But the ___ between the stereotype of bland Scandinavian living and ___ violence is often what makes these stories intriguing. The best pieces in the collection turn the clichés of the genre on their head. contrast, lurid/antithesis, lurid

unprepossessing 매력없는, 호감을 주지 못하는

- The son of middle-class parents who ran a local cigar shop and a mediocre student who enjoyed the soccer field more than his studies, he became an ___ man of quiet conventionality. Paul Grüninger is featured in journalist Eyal Press’s book Beautiful Souls, a study of seemingly ordinary people who exhibited extraordinary and risky courage on behalf of others. unprepossessing, unattractive

hidebound 완고한

cloy 물리다, 질리다

- Kept ___ by cloying commercial radio and clueless record executives, the American popular music scene has frequently depended on cities at the edges of the cultural map to provide a much-needed shot of ___. The momentary ___ what the next big thing is seems to come out of nowhere—as if someone blows a whistle only those in the know can hear, and suddenly record executives and journalists are crawling all over what had previously been an obscure locale. hidebound, originality, consensus about

denigrate 폄하하다

dovish 온건파의

supercilious 거만한, 남을 얕보는

fickle 변덕스러운, 변화가 심한

- Although Prime Minister's long-termed ___ political power ___ against his recent stated willingness to devolve power to local government, it is not ___ doing it. centralizing, raised doubts, precluded

pristine 아주 깨끗한, 자연 그대로의

vitriol 독설, obloquy

recrudescent 재발하는, 재연하는, resurgent

- The recent exhibition on Dadaism is nothing if not ___, for the visual arts are currently awash in Dadaist gestures and gambits of one variety or another. timely, opportune

douse 끄다, 적시다

- Many people remember a time when cutting-edge architects, who are these days treated like celebrities, had ___ relationship with the public: for much of the 1960s, big new buildings in cities were often cause for hostility, not celebration. an antagonistic, an inimical

- Miller reminded his client that labor relations are inherently ___: the interests of business owners’ interests are diametrically opposed to those of the employees. antagonistic, adversarial

- Anthropologist Jane Goodall was ___ in her determination to anthropomorphize the animals she observed with such empathy, and so resisted her editors’ attempts to recast her descriptions in more dispassionate language. stalwart

celerity 민첩함, 기민함, dispatch

credit with ~에게 ~이 있다고 믿다

- Most Capuchin monkey conflict involves such a ___ repertoire of gestural and vocal signals that it is difficult for researchers to tease apart the meanings of the individual signals. This ___ is ___ by the fact that many signals seem to shift in meaning according to the context in which they are produced and the developmental stage of the individuals producing them. rich, problem, augmented

clairvoyant 투시의, 천리안의

abet 사주하다, 교사하다

- Even though women in US would not gain right to vote until 1920, throughout the 19-century many feminist goals were gradually ___, especially the rights of married women to control their own property. realized, achieved

- He was never ___: he was nothing if not ___, so he forbore for the present to declare his passion. impetuous, circumspect/precipitate, discreet

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It was disturbing mentally because I took a Toefl test this morning. It was a waste of time, but what I should do to get out of here other than this and that (which means GRE)? I came back to my normal routine that more than 5 hours of GRE preparation a day. To whom may it concerned: to hell, ETS!


vivacity 생기, 활기

flurry 질풍; 동요케 하다, 몰아치다

stodgy 소화가 잘 안 되는; 따분한

tried-and-true 유효성이 증명된; 신뢰할 수 있는

divert 방향 바꾸게 하다, 우회시키다

epitomize 완벽한 보기이다; 전형적으로 보여주다

taxonomical 분류학의

trepidation 두려움, 공포

misgiving 의혹; 불안감

tediousness 지루함, 따분함

rapacious avaricious, greedy

circumspect 신중한

obtrusive 눈에 띄는, 두드러지는

vapidity 맛없음, 활기 없음; 지루한 말

insinuate 암시하다, 넌지시 말하다

forbear 참다, 삼가다

demur 이의를 제기하다

pitfall 위험, 곤란

- Though he said nothing, Alyosha thoroughly understood his father. The boy was far from being so ___ as everyone thought him. simple

- Even the man was reserved in his speech, he thoroughly understood his mother, which made him far from ___ as people usually thought. ingenuous, simple

- Although Emily Jane Brontë showed little hint of impassioned about gender in her life, she is anything but ___ in her work. apathetic

stem borer 명밤나비 [해충]

wasp 말벌

truffle 송로; 트뤼플 [과자]

- Usually the first to spot data that were inconsistent with other findings, in this particular experiment she let a number of ___ results slip by. incongruent, inconsistent, incongruous, anomalous

hagiographic 성인전의

reticence 과묵, 말수 적음

pilferage 좀도둑질, 장물

dismay 당황; 두려움, 절망감

- Hence, the genuinely interesting and ___ parts of the book threaten to disappear beneath repetitive and familiar depictions of the city as a really busy, crowded, and diverse place. original, innovative

- There is frequently a protracted time interval between the introduction of innovative musical composition and its public acceptance: the concert-going pubic often spurns the ___ in favor of the familiar for a prolonged period. novel, original

simmer 끓(이)다

hortatory 충고의, 권고적인

- At their best, ___ book reviews are written in defense of value and in the tacit hope that the author, having had his or her ___ pointed out, might secretly agree that the book could be improved. adverse, transgressions

- To have (i) ___ book reviews is in defense of the value and in the tacit hope that the author, having his/her (ii)___ pointed out, secretly knows that it could be improved. adverse, transgressions

sway (목적, 행동, 방침 등을) 바꾸게 하다


From Comet Origins: Blame the Solar Nebula! by Greg (2010).



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I could not put posts for two days in a low since I was busy; occupied with other things like Toefl and such and such. This is not for making an excuse, or begging something from someone. I just hate here where you would get just 6,000 some thousand Korean won for working an hour. Of course, this is not the case for me because I have no job, even a temporary, let alone a permanent, job right now. Well, let's get started.


From The Know World by Steven Pinker (2007).


inane 어리석은, 무의미한

smidgen 아주 조금

nostrum (실패할 것 같은) 처방; 엉터리 약

misbegotten 계획을 잘못 세운; 서출의

upset the apple cart (계획 준비 등을) 망쳐놓다; 뒤엎다

engaging 호감이 가는, 매력적인

peeve 약올리다, 지분거리다, 직접거리다, 화나게 하다

in-house 내부의

gimmickry 술책 쓰기

exposition (상세한) 설명 해설

ponder 숙고하다, 곰곰히 생각하다

allusion 암시


From Tracing Oil Reserves to Their Tiny Origins by William J. Broad (2010).


zoom 붕 하고 가다; 급증하다

vignette 소품문, 짤막한 글

lumbering 느릿느릿 움직이는

bygone 지나간, 옛날의

detritus (자연발생적인) 쓰레기

seabed 해저

peer at 응시하다

outpace 앞지르다, 앞서다

sludge 진흙, 진창; 쓰레기

riddle with 벌집을 만들다


From Timeline: U.S.-Cuba Relations


hike 대폭 인상하다

spike in ~의 급등, 급증

a slew of 많은


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