자료/현대사2016. 12. 2. 23:06

한국러시아사학회 (2016123, 이화여자대학교 학생회관 206)


발표자: 류한수

 

1920년대 전간기 바이마르-소련 군사교류 활발. 합동훈련을 하기도 함. 장교 사이에 교류가 일어남. 장교에 따라 붉은군대에 대한 평가가 제각각. 전반적으로 소련군에 우호적인 관점을 가진 독일군 장교는 소수. 보수, 국수주의, 반공주의, 엘리트의식이 배인 독일군 장교가 많았음. 1930년대 투하쳅스키가 독일 방문했을 때 모욕적인 평가. 군사적으로는 교류를 했으면서도, 독일군들은 시혜를 베풀었다는 식으로 기록. 시혜적 시각은 독일군을 얼마나 깔보았는지 잘 보여준다.

독소전쟁이 끝난 1945년 봄, 독일의 패배. 2차 세계대전 이후 냉전기 서방세계에서 패자의 역사가 우위를 차지하는 기현상이 일어났음. 노경덕 선생님의 말: 가해자를 피해자로 만들고 피해자를 가해자로 만들었음 (냉전기 서방의 역사 인식). 독일은 오로지 수에서, 추위에 밀려서 진 비운의 군대로 인식되었음.

1943년까지 쾌속진격, 승리. 1943년 이후 처절한 방어와 승리 등이 서방세계의 인식을 지배했음. 전쟁이 끝나고, 루즈벨트의 사망으로 트루먼이 소련을 동반자라기보다는 적으로 인식. 냉전기 소련은 미국의 동맹이 아닌 적. 소련군과 싸우려면 소련군을 알아야 했기에, 소련군에 대한 정보를 얻기 위하여 독일국방군, 장군들을 대거 기용. 이들에게 2차 세계대전 군사사 서술을 맡김. 독일측의 시각이 강해짐. 독일 장군들이 책임을 히틀러에게 떠넘김.

싸움터에서 붉은군대와 실제로 싸운 독일 장군들은 귀중한 정보의 원천. 중형을 받더라도 금새 사면. 328명 독일 장군 포로가 미국국방부에 배치돼 각양각색의 역사서 서술. 프란츠 할더, 15년 동안 일하면서 역사 서술을 감독. 독일 장군들이 회고록을 작성, 미국에서 출간. ‘자기들은 잘 싸웠는데 히틀러가 끼어들어 패배. 소련군은 저열한 군대.’ 독일의 전격전은 허위에 가까움. 포위섬멸에 가까움. 전통적인 독일군의 교리에 입각하여 싸웠음.

소련군의 전쟁교리는 제정러시아 때부터 내려온 것에 내전을 거치면서 스스로 만든 것.

 

드는 생각: 전후 제국일본군 장교들에 대한 처우와 비교하면 재미있을 듯. 미국방부에서 나온 자료 가운데 만주전략공세 작전에 관한 연구를 일본군 장교에게 맡김. 미국과 전범 장군들의 이해관계가 아주 잘 맞아떨어짐. 전쟁, 전범 회피의 문제. 지구적 반공/반소주의. 독일/일본 장군들 전후 비교한 연구가 있는지?

 

 

발표자: 고가영

 

이슬람이 생기자마자 중앙아로 전파. 현재까지 사회의 모든 조직에 다대한 영향력. 반면 러시아는 19세기 이 지역으로 들어왔고, 정교회를 표방했음. 소비에트는 무신론을 표방했음. 중앙아의 이슬람은 제정과 소비에트를 모두 견뎌냈음. 20169월 사망한 우즈벡 까리모프 대통령이 초대 대통령으로 취임할 때, 헌법에 선서한 다음에 바로 꾸란에 선서했음. 신생국가의 정체성 확립 도구로 쓰겠다는 의지를 표명.

발트 삼국에 점령박물관이 있음. 나치와 볼셰비즘 양자에 의해 수탈을 당했다는 인식. 이와 유사한 선상에서, 오늘날 중앙아시아에서는 소련의 이슬람 탄압을 부각시킴. 탄압에 대한 이슬람의 저항, 지하드? 소비에트 시기 정부와 이슬람의 관계가 이렇게 대립적인 구도였는가? 그렇다기보다는 오히려 소비에트 시기 정부의 대()이슬람 정책은 때마다 변화가 있었음.

공인/생활/극단 (와하비즘) 이슬람. 여기서 공인을 선택했음. 종무원.

러시아혁명 이후 대조국전쟁 발발 이전까지 종무원의 변천.

 

김남섭: 가장 탄압을 많이 받았던 시기: 아프간전쟁기. 회고-“매일 라디오에서 무슬림이 얼마나 나쁜 종교인지 선전선동.”

이슬람 외에 중앙아시아 (우즈벡)를 표상하는 정체성이 있는가? 타지키스탄 내전, 종파끼리의 전쟁, 이슬람만 가지고는 구분도 힘듦. 점점 이슬람을 버리고 티무르제국의 수도인 사마르칸트를 밀면서 역사를 부흥시키려고 함. 기독교 선교사보다 와하비즘 선교사를 더욱 경계함. 까리모프 정부는 우즈벡을 무슬림의 나라지만 이슬람 정부는 아니라고 표방.

양승조: 제정 시기 이슬람정책을 쓰면서, 예카테리나 시기 만들어진 종무청을 만드는 과정을 공부하면서, 소비에트정권에 대해서 어떠한 태도를 가지고 있었는지가 궁금하다. 오렌부르크 무슬림의 경우, 무크티로 선출된 자가 카자흐 가서 적극 제정 선전을 했음. 사둠은 어떠했는가? 이원적 (공인/비공인)인 관계가 생겼음. 까리모프의 통치를 우즈벡 공인 무슬림들이 뒷받침하면서. 동시에 이익을 취함. 종무원은 국가에 충성스러웠을 텐데, 오히려 종무원이 이슬람 사회 내에서 얼마나 지지를 받는지, 또는 어떠한 위상인지가 더욱 연구되어야 할 부분.

김병호 (전 대사)

류한수: ‘종교는 인민의 아편이다에서 아편이 오늘날 마약과 같은 의미인가? 마르크스가 이 아편을 썼을 때, ‘보다는 진통제또는 치료제의 의미로 썼을 터. 레닌이 썼을 때는 어떤 의미?

한정숙: 지하우진의 딸 지하부지노바. 어떻게 된 것인가? 우즈벡어가 노어로 바뀌면서?

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Iss #243  The Media (books, tv, music etc.) tend to create rather than reflect the values of a society.

 1. Artwork and literature from different eras provides us insight into what kind of values prevailed during those times. ... It gives birth to values unthought-of before and this is evident throughout history as far as medieval Europe and as close as the 21st century we are living in.

 2. [H]istory teaches us how the media gave rise to new perspectives and values. The Renaissance is a case in point.

 3. We do not have to search far back into history for the next example of how media creates value. It is in fact very close to us. CNN, the 24-hour international news channels had such a paramount influence on society that experts even coined the term "CNN effect."

 4. [L]ike CNN, the so-called "user-created contents" or UCCs on the internet are calling for audiences to focus on new values.

 5. As seen from the examples set out above, the media tend to create new values in society rather than reflect existing ones.


Iss #38  In the age of television, reading books is not as important as it once was. People can learn as much by watching television as they can by reading book.

 1. However, the biggest problem with television is that the information is delivered on a one way street. ... A book, conversely, can give us the information that we want, when we want it.

 2. In fact, I can probably find several books that give different points of views and ideas, which would be more valuable to my search that one program on television.

 3. Furthermore, I can look for what I need in a book and only what I need.

 4. Another reason why books are better than television prevails. ... In order to get a better idea of a certain topic, one must constantly review.

 5. The television is something that people nowadays cannot live without, but is definitely not something to learn from. ... "I find television to be very education. Every time somebody turns on the set, I go in the other room and read a book."


Iss #40  Scholars and researchers shout not be concerned with whether their work makes a contribution to the larger society. It is more important that they pursue their individual interests, however unusual or idiosyncratic those interests may seem.

 1. [I]t is true that one works better when they are working on something they love and that often leads to great results that affect lives of the beings on earth be it art, philosophy or science.

 2. No doubt the larger society is definitely more important than the individual desires of anyone within the society. However, it is generally proven that scholars and researchers produce the best solution to the society's problems when they are doing what they are interested in. ... Compelling scholars to focus only on certain areas would be forcing many to waste their true talents.

 3. Avenues of intellectual and scientific inquiry that break no new ground amount to wasted time, talent, and other resources. ... Unusual researchers in so called "insignificant" areas do not immediately address society's pressing social problems yet in the long term it might be the initiator to another greatest discovery in another generation.

 4. Whether a scholar or researcher makes a tremendous contribution to society or no contribution at all through his or her studies, the world itself is a better place for having allowing them to pursue their own individual areas of interest as long as it doesn't lead harm anybody.


Iss #204  We learn through direct experience; to accept a theory without experiencing it is to learn nothing at all.

 1. It is undeniable that experience is the best teacher and anything learned through our own experience has an indelible effect in our mind and through out life. ... I fundamentally disagree with the author's stand for the reason that it is unthinkable to validate all knowledge in this universe through direct experience as well as essential to imbibe some values for granted.

 2. The primary reason for my disapproval is that mostly it is unavoidable to learn the basic lessons in life by direct experience. ... It will be stubborn to neglect those lessons for the fact that it's not derived from our direct experience. Moreover, we can't deny the fact that we involuntarily learn many important things which shape our life from various sources like history and good books without having an actual experience.

 3. When world is progressing the knowledge is abounding. There are innumerable theories put forward by imminent scientists which govern this universe and forms central force of our life. We learn handful of them by experiencing it such as the theory of gravitation.

 4. Admittedly, knowledge derived by experience is superior to any other way of acquiring it. It will have a profound influence on each individual. However, it is absurd to say that everything should be perceived by experience. At the same time it is entirely impossible to ratify everything empirically.


Iss #42  Because learning is not a solitary activity but one that requires collaboration among people, students of all ages will benefit academically if they work frequently in groups.

 1. Learning is a process, which can be developed in many different ways. ... I would say that group-wise learning helps man in many aspects of his life - improving the communication skill.

 2. Not only do they gain knowledge in their field, they also get an opportunity to develop their communication skills; by debating with other members of the group.

 3. Although there are students who prefer solitary learning, rather than learning in a group, yet I believe that their chances of improving the knowledge is very meager. ... Learning in a group with different people and with different views would trigger us to desire for learning more about a particular subject.

 4. In sum, learning together in groups helps people to improve both their academic and general knowledge.


Iss #34  Instead of requiring students to take courses in a variety of disciplines - that is, courses ranging from the arts and the humanities to the physical and biological sciences - colleges and universities should allow students to enroll only in those courses that will help prepare them for jobs in their chosen fields. Such concentration is necessary in today's increasingly work-oriented society.

 1. [I]n my humble opinion, for both preparing students for their future jobs and building their colorful lives after graduation, colleges and universities should require students to register courses in various fields.

 2. Above all, knowledge of various discipline contributes to the success of a student's future job.

 3. Furthermore, taking courses in a variety of disciplines would help students to find their real interests.

 4. Last but not least, all the students have to master even basic knowledge in a variety of disciplines for their future colorful lives. ... Since every person wants a colorful life in the future, the college and university should require all the students take courses in various fields.

 5. To sum up, we could find that a good education system should prepare the students well for their future jobs and lives. To reach this aim, colleges and universities should require students to take courses in a variety of disciplines.


Iss #188  Success, whether academic or professional, involves an ability to survive in a new environment and, eventually, to change it.

 1. This world is not a place for diffident people lacking in self confidence. ... However the sweet price of success doesn't come without a price to pay.

 2. 

 3. Thus the adroit person will always be successful to shape his environment to his advantage and be the beneficiary.


Iss #196  Technology creates more problems than it solves, and may threaten or damage the quality of life.

 1. I personally reckon that quality of life is a very subjective issue that should be handled with extra care.

 2. My humble opinion is that the above topic statement is surreal, extreme and unrealistic. 


Iss #184  It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data.

 Nevertheless, when it comes to the aspect of imagination and originality, it is necessary that researchers and scientists have novel hypothesis before they get started to research or experiment. ... This kind of imagination does not need to be excluded from the early stage, but careless imagination should not be publicized.


Iss #11  All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems.

 1. However, there are certain issues that may hinder its functioning and thus, its results from being fruitful.

 2. Therefore, if great intellectuals from all over the world work together to solve these world problems, the world would certainly become a better place to live in.

 3. Developing and under-developed countries suffer from poverty. Many people in these nations do not have the spending power of even $1 per day. ... Hence, if a global university is designed to solve the world's problems, there might be an issue of which problems to be solved first.


Iss #36  The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those who lives after them, not by their contemporaries.


Iss #245  The university of today is a kind of service industry. In order to operate successfully, the administration and faculty need to be responsive to the desires of the students who are the paying customers.


Iss #103  The study of history has value only to the extent that it is relevant to our daily lives.

 1. In my point of view, the statement tends to be presumptuous to some extent. History left us myriad of treasures and by studying it we can procure unfailing resources of wisdom, former experiences and spiritual impetus for us to endeavor.

 2. To begin with, only under the guidance of history can we find knacks to some intractable problems at present. There is always some everlasting focuses in thousands of years. ... Although changes are taking place in every realm of the world in an unprecedented rate, these pithy thoughts can always offer reference and guidance by providing in-deep insights on government, military and even corporation in decision making and problem analyzing.

 3. Learning from history we can also avoid repeating the grave mistakes our predecessors had commit before. Our ancestors have generalize numerous experiences in the long river of history and handed it down from one generation to another. ... It is definitely through myriads of war in history that we mankind realize how precious is the tranquility of this planet. And it is exactly by studying history that seems irrelevant to our daily life that sustained our peaceful land.

 4. Numerous stories left by our predecessors also endow as paradigms for us to learn and emulate.

 5. In sum, the value of studying history lies in various direction and if we bridle ourselves to the history relevant to our daily lives, those spiritual treasures which illuminates our life as well as our civilization would be never found. In a word, we have one lamp by our feet is guided, and that is the lamp of history.

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자료/너와나의지랄이2016. 10. 30. 05:18

Arg #4

 A close scrutiny of the aspects concerning the issue, however, reveals that the above argument is seriously flawed logically. Misrepresentations of facts by the author in order to justify his claim are evident in the passage.

 1) Although Adams prides 40 real agents which are highly superior in its number to that of Fitch, if their competency that may include, as stated above, experience, know-how and passion are far behind those of Fitch realty, it would be difficult to declare that Adams is superior to Fitch.

 For one thing, his insistence is seemingly plausible and even impeccable in its logic, but, in fact, it would be, by the same token, categorized as one of simple data comparison error. So to speak, the author failed to refer to the type and value of ...

 2) To make a long story short, without presenting reliable evidence proving both two real estates had sold same type and quality of housings, the author's claim that Adams is much superior to Fitch would be undermined in no time.

 The most signal defect the author presented is that he or she solely presented his or her own experience, ignoring other latent realms of possibilities such as ...

 3) If that's the case, to put it short, how fast the homes were sold in the past could not serve as a right indication of Adams or Fitch's service competency.

 Judging from the evidence available, it becomes quite clear that the author's claim is biased and based on convenient interpretation of some vague and incomplete data. His contentions could have been firmly established with a more comprehensive and concrete set of evidence.


Arg #7 

 Ostensibly, his assertion seems to be defended by the evidence, but, in fact, it could be classified as one of the insufficient data error in that it fails to provide information as to why ... and whether ... 

 1) To put it shortly, merely doubled number of factories in town could not serve as a case to underrate the substantial performance of current town council in terms of their effort toward protecting environment in town.

 The writer's assertion, one the face of it, seems to be logically plausible, but, in fact, it falls into the error of casual relationship, since the writer failed to present actual occasions for ...

 2) If that's the case, who can possibly blame the current city council for air pollution matter. The city council could be exonerated from the charge of negligence in environment protection.

 However, the writer has failed to take other possible occasions contributing this negative situation into consideration. 

 3) Consequently, it is hard to find any cogent casual relationship between 25 percent more treatments and town council's maladministration.

 At glace, the writer's persistence seems to be sound, but, in fact, it could be classified as one of groundless bias error. The writer failed to present convincing evidences demonstrating ... His claim would be unconvincing because he has failed to attest ... by providing some reliable and corroboratory evidences.

 4) To make a long story short, merely being a member of Good Earth Coalition could not substantiate her ability and resolution as an environmentalist who can possibly solve the environmental problems in town.


Arg #11

However, the author's contention seems to be quite sound hearing by chance, but, regrettably, he fails to take cognizance of other associated particulars such as ...

 1) 알루미늄, 종이 쓰레기의 양이 전체 쓰레기의 양에서 적은 부분을 차지하고, 작년에 버린 양 자체가 원래 적었더라면.

 2) 현재 수거 비용이 현저하게 낮고, 사람들이 부자라서 돈 내는데 거리낌 없다면.

 Admittedly, the author's claim seems to be undergirded by the recent survey in which the town residents participated, but, as a matter of fact, his claim could lose its leg to stand on assuming that all or most of the survey participants had unilateral disposition with regard to ... Simultaneously, one may simply remind of a widely well-known proverb has it that words mean one thing, action means another. By taking all related and possible likelihood into consideration, he or she may come to the conclusion that the author's claim contains inherent logical fallacy in many aspects. 


Arg #12

 At glance, his claim seems to be highly persuasive because ... By considering other possible and latent causes, the experts' opinion would be undermined without any difficulty.

 2) For common sense will tell you that the lower the on-the-job accidents, the higher the productivity in general, his claim seems to be strongly supported by such practical wisdom. 

 3) To put it shortly, if all workers would involve in unanticipated activities wearing them in their leisure hours other than taking rest and getting adequate sleeps, it could deprive their indispensable repose times, thereby falling short of vice president's presupposition.


Arg #21

 At glace, his insistence is seemingly error-free in some respects, but, in fact, it would be categorized as one of insufficient error in that it fails to provide information that ...

 [U]nfortunately, he slipped by some assumptions regarding on ...

 Ostensibly, his claim seems to be cogent in some respect considering, ..., but, in fact, his persistence could be classified as one of hasty generalization error because ...


Arg #25

 1) To put it shortly, a series of such positive events as tourism, new business and incidences related to tax may have no relevance to Ocean View's building golf course and resort hotels.

2) Suppose that Hopewell town is located at around the coal-mining region where poisonous and noisome gases overspread or, possibly, ghetto area where most of people might hesitate to approach.

 3) If above mentioned casino, shopping mall and amusement park business could be proved feasible, furthermore, even those ones could make a great deal of money more than golf and hotel business could do, the mayor's reference "the best way" would be impaired easily and readily.


Arg #34

 There seems to be no rooms for doubt at glance, but, in fact, his claim would be classified as one of insufficient data error.

 1) Suppose that those people who consumed dairy products consistently had been enjoying, for example, extreme sports such as white water rafting, cliff jumping and BMX that were generally thought to be dangerous and were more likely to contribute to bone fractures; consequently, participants' involvement with those such risky outdoor activities may have caused more occasions for bone fractures during the course of study.

 If that's the case, the writer's seemingly cogent persistence would be scathed in no time.

 On the surface, his assurance seems to be tenable in some respects, but, unfortunately, it would be categorized as one of hasty generalization error.

 2) Admittedly, part of bone fractures may have been caused by weakened bones for osteoporosis, but some other bone fractures may have been owing to different occasions such as inadvertence, on-the-job injuries and constitutional disease as the case may be.

 If that's the case, his claim that imputes all bone fractures to symptom of osteoporosis would be tarnished in a moment.


Arg #99

 Outwardly, his claim seems to be quite sound, but, in fact, it could be logically erroneous, assuming that there might be other factors contributing to ...

 1) Suppose that the farmers in Abundia started exploiting state-of-the-art farming instruments and facilities or eliminating noxious insect harming the crops through technical innovation, accordingly, their rice crop might have experienced boost in harvest last year other than being benefited from the newly developed variety of seed. If that's the case, the validity of author's assurance that the newly developed variety of seed has contributed to increase in crop harvest would be tarnished without great efforts.

 2) Apparently, the author's insistence seems to be plausible in that it cites a successful case in their neighboring country, but, in fact, his firm standing would be rocked on the assumption that Paucia has different climate with Abundia and rice paddy of poor soil quality being unable to farm the newly developed variety of seed on them. Over there, it is dubious that hike in crop harvest necessarily increase the income of farmers; for example, cropping the newly developed seed should inevitably use exorbitantly stiff pesticides and employ some prohibitive farming equipments and devices, thereby aggravating their potential income.

 But, as a matter of fact, one may plainly assume that there could be some unexpected complications, such as ...


Arg #100

 A close scrutiny of the aspect concerning the issue, however, reveals that the above argument is seriously flawed logically, Misrepresentations of facts by the author in order to justify his claim are evident in the passage.

 Ostensibly, his insistence seems to be supported logically because of a surge in orders last quarter, but, in fact, he fails to present some other pivotal information to make his claim solid.

 1) Suppose that it would take more than several years, or could be longer than that, to build up a new manufacturing plant, while their already received orders should be fulfilled within a relatively short period of time like 1 month, 2 months, or half a year.

2) To put it shortly, if newly expanded manufacturing plant needs at least 400 trained workers on the spot, for example, to meet order requirements, but, they could hire only 130 workers now and here, their strategy to build up a new manufacturing plant would be one of infeasible.

 However, his claim seems to be plausible at glance, but, in fact, he slipped by some additional information on collateral circumstances that might be ensued thereafter.

 3) What if other incidental expenses such as a surtax and subscription tax are pretty steep, though property taxes are low? What if the available lands are incongruent with plant construction, so to say, it is a kind of desert or swamp area, fortunately, though they are available for immediate purchase?

 Judging from the evidence available, it becomes quite clear that the author's claim is biased and based on convenient interpretation of some vague and incomplete data. His connections could have been firmly established with a more comprehensive and concrete set of evidence. 


Arg #102

 1) At glance, the author's insistence seems to be quite verisimilar, but, in fact, his claim could be erroneous assuming that increment in number of business and local tax revenue has originated from other latent occasions. So to say, the number of businesses in that city might have been doubled because new measures such as stimulus package and other tax reduction or exemption policy for new business promotion might came to be put in force coincidentally right after Yorkville was selected as the major airline's regional fight hub.

 2) [T]heir positive attitude toward Yorkville airport could have had its roots in something else other than easiness of travel to Yorkville. Putting it differently, they could have responded so since they were promised to be offered factory and office sites for free under the governmental sanction, having been enjoying low rent and maintaining minimum wage system for the time being.

 3) Suppose that Tudor city is notorious for its all year round nasty weather, being utterly unsuitable for regional flight hub. Likewise, though Tudor city builds a new airport that is suitable for a regional hub successfully, the major airlines could turn down to select Tudor city as their regional flight hub.


Arg #112

 1) The author's claim seems to be reasonable on the surface, since building new runways to surmount notoriousness for flight delays could be a definitive way of problem settlement, but, in fact, he might have overlooked some crucial and substantial factors influencing the flight delays at the Franklin Airport. To put it shortly, flight delays might have been generated by all the year around nasty weather, improper entry and departure process, and shortage of airport staffs other than limited run away capacity of the Franklin Airport.

 2) The author's claim seems to be quite persuasive at glance, but, lamentably, he seems to pass over the chance of unattainability of wetland restoration in silence. Coming straight to the point, the wet land is currently so seriously damaged that it would not be able to restituted completely as it used to be before industrialization whatever the Airport take actions for it.

 3) With no doubt, their plan for restoration of damaged 1,000 acres of wetland sounds great on the surface, but, regrettably, the Airport council seems to lose sight of important probability of other negative ramification. That is to say, one may assume that other unexpected environmental damages such as infiltration of some virulent substances into the bay, infusion of noxious gas into the air, and reckless disposal of industrial garbage other than tidal pattern and wildlife related incidents, as the bay coalition organization indicated, during the course of or after the construction of new runway.


Arg #130

 At glance, the author's claim seems to have strong ground, but, in fact, his claim would be erroneous by considering the following assumption.

 1) Suppose that many of the previous home owners had already repaired the existing homes through DIY by themselves before selling them in order to sell the homes quickly and at high prices.

 2) Suppose that existing home buyer had to sink huge amount of money to get them for their given merits that naturally come with such as prestigious school district, convenient transportation and scenic views, leaving the existing home buyers being suffered from budget deficits.

 3) Needlessly to say, his claim seems to be plausible in some respect, but, unfortunately, it could be illogical, assuming that the buyers are too busy to make improvement by themselves, devoid of adequate skills for it and find it's a big hassle that most people feel like getting around.


Arg #132

 On the surface of things, his claim seems to be forceful in some respects, but, unfortunately, it could be categorized as one of causation error in that it fails to present the essential correlation between ...

 1) In a single word, newly adopted part-time policy might have nothing to do with decreased or increased sick-leave days, assuming that if there were other latent occasions that might have contributed to decrease employees' sick leave.

 2) On top of it, one needs to point out that fundamental working surroundings in store and factory could be different utterly.

 3) Besides, the writer fails to not the utmost premise that how many employees actually joined the part-time policy.

 4) Ostensibly, the presented survey seems to be plausible enough to persuade people to believe that part-time policy has contributed to improve employees' morale at a glance, but, unfortunately, the writer failed to present some reliable information proving that employees with part-time policy were satisfied with their jobs inasmuch as they were enjoying part-time policy. In other words, their satisfaction could have stemmed from different occasions than part-time policy: low interest of home mortgage underwritten by the store, largess of perquisites and satisfactory remunerations.

 If that's the case, the reliance of survey presented by the author would be weakened by those possible instances without great efforts.


Arg #156

 1) At glance, his claim seems to be plausible and sound in that the survey had been distributed to the company insiders such as senior managers, but, in fact, it could be classified as one insufficient error, assuming that it could contain some biased and erroneous survey results. 

 2) At glance, his persistence seems to be quite plausible but, in fact, it could be classified as one of causation error. Putting it others, sharp increase in sales might have been benefited from other various occasions such as newly introduced budget products, aggressive TV commercials and quality improvement other than one-day seminars for enhancement of interpersonal skill as he indicated. Indeed, newly hired employees sent to the seminars might have been fundamentally equipped with interpersonal skills before joining the ... regardless of one-day seminar.

 3) It seems to be hard to confirm the correlation between increase in sale and declination of disgruntled customers. To put it differently, though there was a sharp increase in sales, it does not necessarily indicates declination of disgruntled customers, assuming that increase in sales might have stemmed from the publication of sensational and catching novel by popular writer or rising fame being under contract with ..., leaving the disgruntled customers as they were.

 4) [I]t might not necessarily work and ensure success for other different kinds of industries if those industrial sectors are required some unique and peculiar interpersonal skills that are far removed from the one-day seminar offered by Dickens Academy.

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자료/한마디2016. 10. 28. 06:30

Every single empire in its official discourse has said that it is not like all the others, that its circumstances are special, that it has a mission to enlighten, civilize, bring order and democracy, and that it uses force only as a last resort. And, sadder still, there always is a chorus of willing intellectuals to say calming words about benign or altruistic empires, as if one shouldn't trust the evidence of one's eyes watching the destruction and the misery and death brought by the latest mission civilizatrice.

From Orientalism.

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자료2016. 10. 27. 01:54

(A link to the original post)


Quotations can bring your writing to life―the reader imagines someone saying the words―but quotations are also vexing to format. Not only do you have to follow different rules depending on what other punctuation marks you mix with your quotation marks, but people in different countries also follow different rules, so you may see quotation marks handled differently in high-quality publications from different countries.

Quotation Marks with Semicolons, Colons, and Dashes

First, let’s review the easy (but rare) stuff: semicolonscolons, and dashes always go outside quotation marks:

Bob snorted and said, “I don’t believe in zombies”―right before thirty of them emerged from the tunnel.

Her favorite song was “Gangnam Style”; she spent weeks trying to learn the dance.

She sang her favorite line from “I Don’t Wanna Stop”: “You’re either in or in the way.”

Quotation Marks with Question Marks and Exclamation Points

Stepping up the ladder of quotation-mark complexity we find question marks and exclamation points: where they go depends on your sentence. If the question mark or exclamation point is part of your quotation, it stays inside; but if the question mark or exclamation point are not part of the quotation, they go outside the closing quotation mark.

In the next examples, the terminal punctuation is part of the quotation, so it stays inside the final quotation mark:

Reynold asked, “Can we have ice cream for dinner?”

Mom snapped and shouted, “No, we cannot have ice cream for dinner!”

On the other hand, in these examples, the terminal punctuation is not part of the quotation―it applies to the whole sentence―so it goes outside the final quotation mark:

Do you actually like “Gangnam Style”?

I can’t believe you lied to me about the ending of “The Sixth Sense”!

Quotation Marks with Commas and Periods

The most common question people ask about quotation marks is whether periods and commas go inside or outside, and the answer depends on where your audience lives because in American English we always put periods and commas inside quotation marks, but in British English periods and commas can go inside or outside (kind of like the American rules for question marks and exclamation points). I use this memory trick: Inside the US, inside the quotation marks. Here are some examples:

“Don’t underestimate me,” she said with a disarmingly friendly smile.

I can never remember how to spell “bureaucracy.”

Don’t get confused when you see this handled differently in The Economist or on the BBC website; just remember that it’s different in those publications because the British do it differently.

Compositors―people who layout printed material with type―made the original rule that placed periods and commas inside quotation marks to protect the small metal pieces of type from breaking off the end of the sentence. The quotation marks protected the commas and periods. In the early 1900s, it appears that the Fowler brothers (who wrote a famous British style guide called The King’s English) began lobbying to make the rules more about logic and less about the mechanics of typesetting. They won the British battle, but Americans didn’t adopt the change. That’s why we have different styles.

Exceptions

People often ask if there are exceptions to the American rule that periods and commas go inside the closing quotation mark. What if the thing in quotation marks is a title? What if it’s a word being defined? Nope. Those aren’t exceptions. The only exception I know of in American English is that sometimes in technical writing, when you’re designating something that a user should type into a text box, it’s important for readers to know whether the punctuation should be included in what they type. In such instances, it’s OK to break the traditional rules and put periods and commas outside the quotation marks if it makes your meaning clearer:

To make an em dash in HTML, type “—”.

Although it is acceptable to break the rules, it is usually better to use a method other than quotation marks to highlight your instructions. Bold face, italics, and colored fonts all work for highlighting text.

To make an em dash in HTML, type —.

To make an em dash in HTML, type —.

To make an em dash in HTML, type —.

Often, I find that the best method is to put the instructions on a separate line.

To make an em dash in HTML, type the following:

—

Double Quotation Marks with Single Quotation Marks

Another British-American difference is how we use single quotation marks and double quotation marks. The British use single quotation marks far more often than Americans. In America, we use double quotation marks in nearly all cases, and we use single quotation marks if we need to place a quotation within another quotation:

The defendant testified as follows: “I heard Sam say, ‘Hide the files from Delia.’ ”

When the single quotation mark and double quotation mark fall next to each other, as in the above example, you can improve readability by putting a space between the two marks. Professional print typesetters use something called a “thin space,” which is thinner than a standard space. 

HTML Codes 
Thin space 
Non-Breaking Space 

Summary

In summary, these are the ways you combine quotation marks with other punctuation marks:

  • Semicolons, colons, and dashes always go outside the closing quotation mark.
  • Periods and commas always go inside the closing quotation mark (in American English).
  • Question marks and exclamation points require you to think about the sentence a little to determine where they go. 


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자료/너와나의지랄이2016. 10. 26. 21:00

extol; commend 격찬하다, 칭찬하다

endemic; native; indigenous 고유의; 고질적인; 풍토의

- Political advertising may well be the most (i) ___ kind of advertising: political candidates are usually quite (ii) ___, yet their campaign advertisements often hide important differences behind smoke screens of smiles and empty slogans. deceptive/obfuscatory, dissimilar.

quirky 꾀바른, 변덕스러운

flamboyant 이색적인, 화려한, 대담한

effrontery 뻔뻔스러움

flaccid 축 늘어진, 탄력 없는

recrudescent 재발하는, 재연하는 

- Reviews written by music critic and composer Stephenson were hardly (i) ___: musicians who performed his music could count on sympathetic coverage, while those who ignored him were held to (ii) ___ standards. disinterested, exacting.

- Other queens have been accused of murder, treason and adultery, but they have not attracted such enduring ___, perhaps because the case against them has never been satisfactorily proved. opprobrium.

- Some forms of creative work, however, have never been protected by American law. The study of these unprotected forms of creativity ought to be of great interest. If we see these creative endeavors (i) ___ as a result of uncontrolled copying, we might decide to (ii) ___ the law in order to curtail appropriation and induce investment and innovation. On the other hand, if an unprotected area of creative work (iii) ___ in the absence of legal rules against copying, we would do well to know how. We might also ask whether other currently protected forms of creativity could also flourish without expensive and potentially inefficient monopoly protections. languishing, extend, thrives.

sidestep; circumvent 회피하다, 피하다

- In ways large and small, millions of people are taking active steps to ___ the medical mainstream, whether by taking herbal remedies for disease or by placing their hopes for a cure in alternative treatment. sidestep, circumvent.

- His own writing style was ___: colorful and tart in its choice of language, willing to run risks in its allusions, metaphors, and verbal juxtapositions, prone to irreverent conclusions designed to surprise or startle. audacious, striking.

- The modest but functional new wing finally gives the museum the ___ to serve its visitors properly, including multiple entrances to eliminate the lines that used to snake around the building. wherewithal.

complexion 안색, 양상


Neo-Whigs. 동물.

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자료/너와나의지랄이2016. 10. 26. 01:36

- Motivation is the hardest of all managerial tasks, and it is ___ to expect a single memo, no matter now well crafted, to have much effect on the staff’s attitude. fanciful.

- Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, look surprisingly ____, even though it is a cold, dimly lit world made from unknown materials. familiar, recognizable.

- Brazen showmanship has also given way to conspicuous displays of authenticity. It has become cliche for comedians to say they didn’t really become good until they drew from real life. Martin’s act is not only a ___ to simple, romantic notions of comedic truth, it’s also explicitly ___ artifice. And it ___ the relationship between performer and fan. rebuke, preoccupied with, mocks. (link)

- In science education, it is important to differentiate between inaccurate ideas that are conceptually ___ and understandings that are inaccurate, and yet can ___ learning of more sophisticated understandings. The former are simply wrong, the latter can be seen as incomplete, overly simplistic, or tied to only a few limited contexts. unproductive, foster. (link)

- As a historical genre, biography is best when ___, a careful reconstruction of the past in all its unfamiliar particularity. meticulous, thorough. (link)

- Despite the occasional (i) ___ of their venues, the culture of corporate conferences is a deeply (ii) ___ conference, each day consisted of nearly nine hours of continuous lectures and panels enlivened by few pleasantries or anything that could be construed as a joke. The only (iii) ___ sensory deprivation of the sessions came from the handsome color slides favored by the corporate presenters. opulence, ascetic, respite from.

- For despite the occasional opulence of their venues, the culture of corporate conferences is a deeply ascetic one. At the Hyatt, the proceedings began each morning well before nine and stretched to five-thirty or six, nearly nine hours of continuous lectures and panels enlivened by few pleasantries or anything that could be construed as a joke. Other than that, the only respite from sensory deprivation was the handsome color slides favored by the corporate presenters. (link)

allusion 암시

- The building affairs minister rightly recognizes that the current planning system---under which the government controls every aspect of construction--- creates disastrous developments, but she is wrong to propose the opposite: the wholesale(i) ___ of the building market. Such a complete(ii) ___ of responsibility on the part of the state can hardly be in the public’s interest. liberalization, abnegation.

recapitulation 요점의 되풀이, 요약, 개요

- Since the 1920s, historical fiction writers in China have emancipated the genre from the traditional notion that (i) ___ was the ultimate goal of history writing. Yet the traditional commitment to (ii) ___ was not simply (iii) ___: this new genre was expected to capture the essence of historical truth even as it allowed space for the writer’s imagination. factuality, veracity, jettisoned.

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자료/너와나의지랄이2016. 10. 25. 20:31

trepid 소심한, 벌벌 떠는

trepidation 두려움, 공포

apprehension 우려, 불안; 체포

misgiving 의혹, 불안감

taxonomy 분류()

imperturbable 쉽게 동요하지 않는, 차분한

construe 이해하다, 해석하다

- Although its director ___ that the movie uses a documentary approach in portraying the famous sit-down strike, in practice its characters are heavily fictionalized and fall into familiar Hollywood types. asserts, maintains.

- Those who took Clark’s old-mannered compliance for obsequiousness (i) ___ him: his apparent (ii) ___ veiled a fervent (iii) ___ of the authority that others exercised over him, one that he occasionally expressed by discreetly sabotaging their most important projects. misconstrued, acquiescence, detestation.

- The students' ___ nature were in sharp contrast to imperturbable disposition of their teacher. volatile.

- The union states its position polemically, it's leaders say they are fighting to save good jobs while ___ corporations replace full-time workers with part-time ones in order to cut down on both wages and benefits. rapacious, avaricious.

- Despite the scathing precision with which she satirizes the lies of the social aspirants and moneyed folk, the writer appears to ___ being part of the world she presents as so ___. relish, insufferable.

- Individuals interested in longevity have sought to fine-tune their bodies with all kinds of ___ diets: only raw foods; only plant; only the flesh, fruit, and nuts that prehistoric humans would have hunted and foraged. proscriptive, exacting.

proscriptive 인권을 박탈하는, 추방의

exacting 힘든, 까다로운

- In the wild, no other mammal ___ individuals from another species; badgers do not tend hares, deer do not nurture baby squirrels, lions do not care for giraffes. fosters, adopts.

- Convinced of the gravity of her poetry, Voigt must have found the reviews of her most recent collection (i) ___ reading: one amused reviewer thought that it was unrecognizable as poetry but decidedly (ii) ___. depressing, diverting.

diverting 여흥의, 즐거운

Unambiguous texts can allow their readers to (i) ___ them quickly, but ambiguous texts can have the attractive (ii) ___ of multiple possible interpretations, all of which can be considered equally (iii) ___, and none of which is the single true meaning. comprehend, allure, valid.

- Some lawyers would like to work for the Supreme Court cases without any charge due to the ___they may get: this might help them in the future to get a more eminent job. prestige.

- No matter what people wishes, the government will not enact with it; it is ___ for people to make thing become legitimate. fruitless, futile.

- Pioneering medical research scientist’ (i) ___ claims regarding the (ii) ___ new researchers make the public wonder their own doctors are not dispensing miracles. There’re forces both external and internal, on scientists that most require them to (iii) ___. Without money, there is no science. Researchers must constantly convince administrators who control tax dollars, investors, and individual donors that the work they are doing will make a difference. inflated, potential benefits of, oversell.

cower 몸을 숙이다, 웅크리다

- Our mass media are much more fascinated by bad ideas or the failure of good ones than by successes: we drown in bad news --tales of how things went wrong--but we have only the most ___ discussion on how they might go right. cursory, perfunctory.

sycophantic 아첨하는, 알랑거리는

obsequious 아부하는

lugubrious 침울한

provenance 기원, 출처, 유래

- Recent research runs counter to the long-cherished notion that a small drop in body temperature during and after surgery is either ___ or actually protects the patient by slowing metabolism and reducing the body’s demand for blood and oxygen. immaterial, inconsequential.

trenchant 정통을 찌르는

complacency 만족함, 안주

a far cry from ~과는 현저히 다른

- The macromolecule RNA is common to all living beings, and DNA, which is found in all organisms except some bacteria, is almost ___. universal (ubiquitous).

- Many readers today consider the moral sentiments expressed in the ancient writers’ work to be quite vapid, and in the seventeenth century they were similarly regarded as ___. jejune.

- I knew well, from experience with hundreds of hired crew members on her boats, how (I) ___ attitudes can be: how one negative influence can impel an otherwise (ii) ____ member of a crew to quit. infectious, contented.

- Many scholars have argued that the United States Supreme Court usually (i) ___ public opinion in its decisions because it fears that it will (ii) ___ if does not, when it does depart from public opinion, it whips up political maelstroms. hews to, lose public support.

hew to 따르다, 준수(신봉)하다

whip up 자극하다, 흥분시키다

maelstrom 대혼란, 소용돌이

- Although Uruk in southern Mesopotamia has been (i) ___ as being both the first city and the model for later comes, at least two sites in northern Mesopotamia have yielded clear evidence of urbanization long before the existing evidence from Uruk, and other discoveries indicate that some of the (ii) ___ early urbanism were invented not in southern Mesopotamia but in the north. These findings have led some archaeologists to (iii) ___ a serious reconsideration about when and where the first cities arose. established, defining features of, propose.

- Ascorbate readily oxidizes in aerated aqueous solutions, and the PH of such solutions, in part, ___ the rate of oxidation, since the higher the PH, the greater the rate of oxidation. determines, governs.

aerated 탄산 가스가 ; 화난, 흥분한

- Although the employees’ union and company management, entering into contract negotiations, both issued statements encouraging ___, acrimony between the two sides continued unabated. civility, comity.

mordancy 독설; 신랄함

- The current ___ of repackaged music under Miles Davis’ name might prompt any reasonable person to conclude that the recording vault has been plundered bare. glut, surfeit.

- A record company recently started to sell ___ of repackaged old Cds; this seems to tell us it’s not releasing good records any more. glut, surfeit.

modicum 약간, 조금

insular 배타적인, 편협한; 섬과 관련된

coterie 일파, 집단

interloper 침입자

- The media have constantly disparaged the governor’s competence and have found a public only too eager to applaud their ___. mockery, derision.

stupefaction 마비; 깜짝 놀람

incredulity 쉽사리 믿지 않음, 불신

certitude 확신

provident 장래를 준비하는

- The perennial problem for critics of nineteenth-century novelist Charlotte Yonge is the relationship of her realism to her (i) ___. While admiring her complex psychological portraits and detailed descriptions of quotidian family life, readers since her own time have tended to fault her improbable manipulation of plot to teach a moral lesson. Indeed, many critics (ii) ___ her because of her willingness to (iii) ___. didacticism, dismiss, sacrifice credibility.

- Tolstoy wrote many works of non-fiction, and professed (i) ___ these explorations of ethics and religion over his novels and short stories. The fiction writer in him, however, was hard to (ii) ___. Tolstoy's late novel, Hadji Murad, was never published during his life; this fact suggests some of the author's ambivalence about the work, but Tolstoy could not resist writing it. Far from the near-didactic nature of his non-fiction, Hadji Murad is a short novel with the breadth and power of an epic, with vivid characterization and intense storytelling that sweep the reader away. While the reader senses the moral concerns of the tale's creator, the short novel is a far cry from the (iii) ___ of Tolstoy's non-fiction. a preference for, suppress, didacticism. (link)

- Unlike some mammals--cows and sheep, for instance--that are notably ___, lions have a wide range of facial expressions. impassive.

- Recent scholarship has questioned the (i) ___ of tropical forests around the world. Archaeologists have shown, for example, that the largest contiguous tract of what was thought to be virgin rain forest in the southern Amazon had been transformed into a cultural parkland before European contact, and many of the forest islands in West Africa’s savanna forest transition zone are (ii) ___ as well. naturalness, anthropogenic.

- In the solar system, collisions among the planets are among the most___ processes shaping surfaces: many a picture of the planets in it show that a proliferation of impact craters happened in the last 4 to 5 billion years. pervasive

vivacious 명랑한, 쾌활한

clairvoyant 투시하는, 천리안의

- Many innovative photographers were delighted to find in instant photography a mode that encouraged them to stop viewing photographers as___ and start viewing it as something they could handle with spontaneity, even derision. sacrosanct.

sacrilegious 신성모독의, 무엄한

- Modern industrial development commenced in Shanghai in the late 19th century, with the incursion of Western settlements. Soon afterwards cultural activities associated with a modern industrial society made their appearance. Western influence was particularly visible in Shanghai’s architecture and urban space, especially in the concession areas. So Western influence was abhorrent to Shanghai architecture, that’s why it is still ___ today. disdained.

- Unenlightened authoritarian managers rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups: a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents ___. schism.

- Slight but ___ variation in the timing of the star's pulses led astronomers to deduce that it was being pulled backwards and forwards by three planets orbiting around it. regular.

- The dictators’ gleaming military uniform and imperial paraphernalia sharply contrast with the ___ fashion favored by most other contemporary political leaders. unostentatious, modest.

- Even if the merits of the proposal are (i) ___, faculty members may be reluctant to (ii) ___, given their fear of offending the group that champions it. dubious, demur.

demur 이의를 제기하다

ethology 인성학; 행동학

anthropomorphism 의인화; 신인 동형론

- Even a decade ago, at the time that Binti Jua rescued the injured boy, the idea of animal morality would have been met with ___ and a “surely you must be joking!” dismissal. However, recent research is demonstrating that animals not only act ___, but also have the capacity for empathy, forgiveness, trust, reciprocity, and much more as well. raised eyebrow, altruistically.

rectitude 정직, 청렴, 강직

- What once seemed a quixotic vision---the "Subway to the Sea," connecting Union Station in downtown Los Angeles to the Pacific Ocean in Santa Monica---no longer seems quite so___. impracticable.

- A clever form of diplomacy involves subtly inducing the other party to propose your preference so that your ___ their requests appears as the granting of concession. accession to, acquiescence to.

- The often-cited parallels between human communities and insect colonies are ___: the cooperation found among social insects is essentially due to the insects' genetic ties, while humans often collaborate with non-relatives. contradictory.

hackneyed 진부한

rapprochement 화해, 친선

wistful 애석해 하는

vacuous 멍청한, 얼빠진

itinerant 떠돌아 다니는, 순회하는

peripatetic 이동해 다니는, 소요학파의

roisterer; carouser 흥청망청하는 사람

- (i) ___, we can safely infer causality by appealing to 一些原理 (物理, for example) that are well understood and表明可以被用到 comparably straightforward circumstances. 但是, for the opposing class, which consists of (ii)  ___systems 比如全球经济, 物理, or 想法, explanations of singular events are usually (iii) ___, absent the requisite accounting for the intricate dynamics of such systems. In simple situations, complex, unjustified.

disgorge 쏟아 내다, 토해 내다

- It is possible for human to go forty or more hours without sleep and still be able to (i) ___ information acquired at the beginning of the sleepless period. Thus, when we are considering a role for sleep in human memory consolidation, we are referring to a possible role in the (ii) ___ encoding of information and optimization of its recall, not a (iii) ___ of sleep for recalling events of the prior day. disgorge, longer-term, requirement.

- While the writer was best known for her much-ballyhooed ___, her impact reached far beyond memorable quips. drollness.

drollness 우스움, 익살맞음

stoicism 금기, 금욕

fastidiousness 결벽, 까다로움

congenial 마음에 맞는, 알맞은

- Managers who categorically squelch insights from low-tiered employees run the obvious hazard of (i) ___creativity; conversely, these very same managers are more likely to (ii) ___ any ideas that flow down from the top brass. smothering, unquestioningly embrace.

besmirch 더럽히다

- After years of assiduously cultivating an image of integrity, the mayor was acutely aware that just one scandal could forever ___ his reputation in the public's eyes. besmirch, tarnish.

profuse 많은, 다량의

rue 후회하다

- Although the causes of the ongoing schism include cultural and political factors, these theological differences continue as points of contention between the churches. And science community also has been ___ sectarianism. riven with.

riven 분열된, 갈라진

- Advertising, formerly called the last resort to create or distribute music, has transformed itself to ___ of music that would otherwise be unheard. a champion, an advocate/a promoter.

cupidity; avarice; greed; covetousness 탐욕

- Glass, by definition, is ___ in its structure: its atoms lack order and are arranged in every which ways. amorphous.

- Within the culture as a whole, natural science has been so successful that the word scientific is used in (i) ___ manner; it is often assumed that to call something “scientific” is to imply that its reliability has been (ii) ___ by research whose results cannot reasonably be (iii) ___. honorific, established, disputed.

- The economic recovery was somewhat lopsided: (i) ___ in some of the industries economics while (ii) ___ in others of them. feeble, robust.

untenable 방어될 없는, 옹호될 없는

discriminative 특이한, 식별하는

- The university's once ___ department of economic history has lost prestige and transmogrified into a department of management and marketing. respected, venerable.

- The report is admittedly ___: it is intended to suggest new lines of research rather than to deal with the subject in a ___ manner. sketchy, thorough/exhaustive.

cavalier 무신경한

- Creativity is no longer seen as ___ inspiration leading to poem or painting, it has come to be thought of as something permeating the whole of a person's life. a momentary, an evanescent. 

swill; guzzle 꿀꺽꿀꺽 마시다

purvey 공급하다, 조달하다

- For parents, the pleasure of letting children choose which book to read aloud together is not always ___: I well remembered my inner groans when my child would constantly pick my least favorite book from the shelf. unalloyed, unqualified.

slight 무시하다

- Citing the corruption and intrigue that pervaded politics in the city, my colleague ___ the newspaper’s trove of journalism prizes, declaring that finding great stories in the city must be effortless. slighted, disparaged.

reclamation 교정, 개간; 교화

- To the avid reader of E.O. Wilson, much of his most recent book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge will be (i) ___, as the book represents the culmination of a life spent thinking about everything from the social lives of ants to the social lives of people. Nonetheless, new thoughts have been mixed in with the old to produce a book remarkable for its (ii) ___ and ambition. a predictable, purview.

- Just as different human groups have different kinds of musical traditions, different groups of whales have different dialects evident in their songs, and it is possible for one group to influence the (i) ___ of another. It has been documented more than once that a group of whales will (ii) ___ its own tunes and adopt the new songs of an unfamiliar group. tastes, abandon.

abstruse 난해한

- The controversy about Alexander the Great’s personality derives from the fact that our sources are (i) ___, all eyewitness accounts having perished. What remains is, at best, (ii) ___ (one history, for instance, is based largely on the now-lost memoirs of Alexander’s alleged half-brother, Ptolemy) and at worst, highly unreliable. inadequate, secondhand.

- Carmen's affection for her sister, though not ___, was too plainly greater to permit painless departure. unbounded/immoderate.

veracious 진실을 말하는, 정직한

- Any notion of justice in the fortunes of artists is ___; works of equal value and quality produce quite different returns or no returns at all. baseless, untenable.

- There are great ___ in countries' green house gas emissions especially in per capita terms: while the United States and China are similar in aggregate emissions, United States per capita emissions are huge multiple of China's. disparities, variances.

- Until the advent of film, commercial entertainment in England occurred only where concentrated urban populations provided audiences large enough to make it remunerative: theaters and music halls were (i) ___ in rural villages. But village cinemas quickly become (ii) ___, even though they were ramshackle affairs in comparison to the urban picture palaces. spartan, profitable.

ramshackle 금방이라도 무너질

- What they see in Tanaka is the one candidate capable of ___ leadership, in direct contrast to Williamson, whose term in office has been marred by ___. decisive, vacillation/irresolution.

grandstanding 이목을 끌려는 행위

pecuniary 금전상의

- In 1884, Sewall and Dow agreed to join Roosevelt in the Dakota territory for reasons that appear to have been ___: Sewell later recalled that Roosevelt guaranteed them a share of anything made in the cattle business. pecuniary, economic.

- The author clearly supports the causes he writes about, but he is more a narrator than (i) ___. Some say he should have included (ii) ___, but he is wise to let the fact speak for themselves. They are complex enough to prompt many kinds of interpretation, and he would bog down the complicated tale if he tried to adjudicate all of their competing claims. an advocate, analysis of events.

peccadillo 사소한 잘못, 실수

- Seemingly ___ her reputation for tediousness, the principal ___ chatty style speech. embarrassed, affected/opted.

- The principal was seemingly ___ by his stodgy reputation that he ___ to give the lecture in a chatty style. embarrassed, affected/opted.

- Contrary to those who fear the impact of invasive species on native plants, the biologist contend that the threat posed to biodiversity by nonnative species is often ___. For instance, a study of garlic mustard, a nonnative plant now thriving in Minnesota's oak forests, found that garlic mustard abundance in forest plots was not ___ the number of other plant species there. exaggerated, related to.

glaucoma 녹내장

dissonance 불협화음, 불화, 충돌

untethered; divorced 줄에 매여 있지 않은

unerring; settled 틀림없는, 항상 정확한

- Documentary seems, more than ever, like a catchall rubric, a label that can be affixed to ___, even contradictory products, ranging from the pranks of the elusive street artist Banksy (recorded in “Exit Through the Gift Shop”) to “Baseball: The Tenth Inning,” Ken Burns’s meditation on the recent history of baseball. heterogeneous.

catchall 잡동사니 넣는 자루; 다목적용의

diffident 조심스러운, 소심한

- Investors are grateful that the attorney general has stepped in to pursue inquiries into misfeasance in the financial markets, given that the regulators officially charged with policing the industry have been ___. diffident.

- For certain economists, "pure” economic theory, that is, economic theory ___ a specific social structure, is impossible, much like a concept of anatomy that investigates no specific species. abstracted from, divorced from.

crotchety 쉽게 짜증을 내는

- No wonder that classicists tend to be nervous of sounding overly (i) ___. Write so much as a sentence about the ancient world and the temptation is immediately to (ii) ___ it. Even when the sources are at their most (iii) ___, uncertainties and discrepancies crop up everywhere. dogmatic, qualify, plentiful.

- It would be imprecise to characterize her scholarship as (i) ___ : though her etymological discussion is necessarily esoteric, there is nothing (ii) ___ about the conclusions she derives from it. arcane, obscure.

- His theory cannot be regarded as (i) ___. Although he quoted some esoteric ideas in the theory, he was never (ii) ___. arcane, obscure.

etymological 어원의

- The identity of hominid remains found in a cave in the Altai Mountains was ___ until Paabo and his colleagues ended the speculation by showing that DNA sequences indicated the bones belonged to Neanderthals. conjectural.

mirthful 유쾌한, 명랑한

- They applaud the musicals of the 1930s and 1940s, whose plethora of stars, jokes, dances witty dialogue, and general gaiety make today's offering seem ___ by comparison. cheerless, gloomy.

- The journey to (i) ___, when it starts from a vantage as (ii) ___ as Dunsany’s, is often as (iii) ___ as the path to glory. How did a writer of such talent and renown wind up nearly forgotten? obscurity, eminent, unfathomable.

- Though humanitarian emergencies are frequent features of television news, such exposure seldom ___ the public, which rather seems resigned to a sense of impotency. galvanizes.

- There has been great enthusiasm in the United States for reducing fossil fuel dependence by increasing production of biofuels from crops such as corn and switchgrass, but this (i) ___ about biofuels potential should be (ii) ___ by a realistic appraisal of the costs and challenges of biofuel production. exuberance, tempered.

forbearance 관용, 관대

exuberance 풍부, 충일, 무성함, 윤택

- If the candidate wins the election now that rivals within his own party have (i) ___ him in a campaign that was (ii) ___ without their help, he will be mightily indebted to these self-styled saviors. rallied to, foundering.

- Galaxy Zoo set a standard for citizen-scientist participation project, zealous volunteers (i) ___ the project’s organizers by classifying an entire catalog of galaxies years head of schedule, (ii) ___ by (iii) ___ of the Galaxy Zoo team was inspired to pursue lines of research they had never even imagined. astonished, buoyed, alacrity.

buoy 기분을 좋게 하다, 들뜨게 하다

- Fears that the recent sharp rise in oil prices is an indication that oil is running out appear to be (i) ___. The Middle East still contains vast oil supplies. Furthermore, even if new oil finds elsewhere have been (ii) ___ than in the past, substantial quantities of oil can be profitably stripped from tar and shale. unfounded, less frequent.

- Although one can adduce myriad of examples of ecosystem disruption by nonindigenous species, nevertheless most introduced species that survived in fact appear to have quite ___ effects on the ecosystem they have invaded. minimal, trifling.

- The difficulty of reforming electoral politics is not lack of the right tools but the need to put them into the hands of impartial agents: the goal should be to build capacity while ___. constraining, deterring.

- Political advertising may well be the most (i) ___ kind of advertising: political candidates are usually quite (ii) ___, yet their campaign advertisements often hide important differences behind smoke screens of smiles and empty slogans. deceptive, dissimilar.

- Female video artists’ rise to prominence over the past 30 years has ___ the ascent of video as an art form: it is only within the past three decades that video art has attained its current, respected status. matched, paralleled.

obviate 제거하다, 배제하다

- The paleontologist examined the problem afresh, believing that the accepted classification ___ the essential continuity of the specimens by making specious distinctions among them. belied.

flesh out 살을 붙이다; 구체화 하다

- At the heart of present-day studies in computational authorship attribution (AA) lies the hypothesis that each author has so personal a writing style that it can function as stylistic DNA. Any given authors style, in other words, is regarded as (i) ___ and (ii) ___ every other authors writing style. stable, distinguishable.

- Essein’s (i) ___ solving the complicated problems generates envy and awe, but only among her fellow experts. For these experts, such problems are so (ii) ___ that they (iii) ___ virtually everyone else. facility in, arcane, mystify.

- As a critic, Nelson is noteworthy for her ___; rather than representing fully formed pronouncements, she is willing to let us watch as she works out her ideas. humility, modesty.

- Many legislators who helped Roosevelt shape the New Deal ___ the fact that emerging social problems affected every segment of the population; nonetheless, they often acted with a view to aiding only their own constituents. bemoaned.

- In a production process that is complex and often unpredictable roles that start out discretely defined may become quite ___. confusing.

- For a long time now, revenues from Broadway musicals have been ___ with their quality: profits are higher than ever, but with few exceptions, the musicals are not ___. at odds, first-rate.

- Wilson is wont to emphasize the ___ of ants, how ants with full stomachs will regurgitate liquid food for those without, or how the old will fight so the young can survive. beneficence, altruism.

incisive 예리한, 날카로운

- Doris Kearns Goodwin’s elegant, incisive study of Lincoln ___ those whose knowledge of Lincoln is an amalgam of high school history and popular mythology as well as those who are experts. gratify, please.

- One big challenge with placebo responses is that they are ___: people given the same inert pill or potion may show wildly different reactions, and the effects can vary widely according to each person's illness. capricious, unpredictable.

vicarious  대리의, 간접적인

parsimonious 검약하는, 인색한

The research on otters’ environmental requirements is surprisingly (i) ___. One reason for this has to do with the estimation of how much they use different areas. Doing so may be (ii) ___ in some kinds of terrain, such as Shetland where the Eurasian otters are active in daytime and have clear individual markings. There it is possible to identify the individuals over stretches of coast of a few kilometers and to see what kinds of coast they use. However, the field conditions are (iii) ___. difficult, relatively simple, exceptional.

- The notion of film producers as the ogres of the movie business has proved an (i) ___ one, but according to The Producers by Tim Adler, it is not always granted in reality. Attacking what he calls the “auteur myth”--the idea of the director as the purveyor of art in an industry otherwise peopled with (ii) ___ --he places at the heart of his book an image of the producer, not the director, as the primary (iii) ___ force in the movie. enduring, profitmongers, creative.

- Laws protecting intellectual property are intended to stimulate creativity, yet some forms of creative work have never enjoyed legal protection-a situation that ought to be of great interest. If we see certain forms of creative endeavor () ___ as a result of uncontrolled copying, we might decided to () ___ intellectual property law. Conversely, if unprotected creative work () ___ in the absence of legal rules against copying, we would do well to know how such flourishing is sustained. languishing, extend, manages to thrive.

- Tompkinson’s prior donations to the university, while very generous, failed to ___ the magnitude of her latest gift. portend/presage, predict.

- Scientists seriously worry about recent abnormal phenomena; If the ongoing connection of global warming effects and the rise of sea levels in innumerable parts of world continue, bigger changes to the planet could be ___. presaged, portended.

- A hallmark of certain nineteenth-century mystery novels was the reform agenda of their authors, who ostensibly sought to expose economic injustice while depicting the seamy underside of urban life. In reality, however, these claims to a radical political agenda were often (i) ___ meant to give lurid thrillers the appearance of (ii) ___. disingenuous, high-minded purpose.

- Studies of hermaphroditic plants may exhibit sampling bias against self-fertilizing and cross-fertilizing species, thus inflating the frequency of species using a mixed mating system (both self-fertilizing and cross-fertilizing); nevertheless the number of mixed-system species is not ___. trivial.

- The film was a ___: its elements were assembled more or less haphazardly from a dozen of different sources. pastiche.

burlesque 풍자시

- The candidate seeks to depict his opponent as being ___, as one who is simply unable to make a decision and stand his ground. inconstant, capricious.

- Readers have long considered Lawd Today, Richard Wright’s first written and last published novel, ___; the novel simply seems inconsistent with the image of what a Wright text should do or be. an anomaly, an aberration.

- Gravitational waves---ripples in the geometry of space-time---are analogous to electromagnetic waves. The challenge in trying to observe these waves directly is that they are extremely weak. To make waves large enough to be (i) ___, the most (ii) ___ events in the universe are required: supernova explosions, the formation of black holes, or the collision of stars. Even so, the effects are (iii) ___. The geometry changes so little that a distance of several kilometers changes by less than the diameter of proton. detectable, violent, minuscule.

- Bone is a physiologically ___ tissue: it can change size and shape to meet the body’s needs during the various stages of an animal’s life. active.

- Although Professor Pearson’s colleagues often complained that he was (i) ___, his friends were quick to defend him from this charge of (ii) ___. mercurial, inconstancy.

- The author paints a rather dark picture of book publishing as a hidebound industry, one that is facing a profound change in its mode of production but is so (i) ___ its past as to be (ii) ___ opportunities offered by technological change. encumbered by, unable to seize.

- Traditional Vietnamese culture has long promoted the idea of gender equality. Founding myths ___ the equal division of labor in child care for mothers and fathers. As is often the case, however, theoretical commitments are ___ actual processes. In reality, gender-based ___ persists. celebrate, incommensurate with, stratification.

- Because movie studios, under pressure to generate international sales, have favored big-budget pictures with fantasy plots, the representation of everyday domestic life has largely been ___ other media, such as television and literature. left to, cede to.

- The governor might conceivably find a genuine resolution to the budgetary dilemma, but she may be tempted to engage in deception: a ___ exercise in fiscal prudence. specious.

- In aquatic environment, the herbicide atrazine is most likely to (i) ___ developing amphibians when it is highly diluted than when it is much more concentrated, a new study suggests. Although counterintuitive, the finding is (ii) ___ some past research on atrazine and studies showing that other hormonally active compounds are most damaging at trace concentrations. kill, consistent with.

- Space is often referred to as final frontier, as the only realm of which humankind has still to gain substantial underlying, yet, the ocean is also another vast area about which our knowledge is ___. rudimentary, sketchy.

- China's rapidly growing population is the main threat facing large carnivores in the People's Republic. Increasingly policies aimed at limiting population growth have been (i) ___, nevertheless, the country's vast size and the isolation of many of its regions mean that human populations in areas where large carnivores still occur (ii) ___. This human pressure has (iii) ___ the south China tiger. implemented, can grow unchecked, doomed.

- Hidebound by cloying commercial radio and clueless record executives, the American pop music scene has frequently depended on cities at the edges of the cultural map to provide a much-needed shot of (i) ___. Seattle, Minneapolis, Austin, Texas, and Athens, Georgia, have all served as temporary pivot points, churning out bands and defining the sound of the moment. Even Omaha, Nebraska, had its 15 minutes not so long ago. The momentary (ii) ___ seems to come out of nowhere – as if someone blows a whistle only those in the know can hear, and suddenly record executives and journalists are crawling all over what had previously been an obscure locale. originality, consensus.

- While normal floods resulting from usual monsoon rainfall are ___ the growth of crops, recently there has been an increase in the frequency of high-intensity floods that do not have such welcome effects. essential for, indispensable for.

unpropitious 계제가 나쁜, 불길한

meretricious 겉치레뿐인, 겉만 번지르르한

- Despite the ___ of medical information available through e-mail, the Internet, and mobile devices, not many patients are taking advantage of the potential of electronic communications for health-related. wealth, profusion.

unreserved 전적인, 조금도 거리낌 없는

meander 구불구불하다; 거닐다

- The spacecraft’s considerable heft made an unusual ___ way for a meander through the solar system, under the influence of gravitational of three large bodies. indirect, circuitous.

- There has been (i) ___ elephant's fabled mental capacities until recently, when these behavioral observations have begun to be (ii) ___ by brain science. MRI scans of an elephant's brain suggest that even relative to its overall size it has a large hippocampus, the component in the mammalian brain linked to memory and an important part of its limbic system, which is involved in precessing emotions. only anecdotal evidence for, buttressed.

- Many of the unusual behaviors attributed to crows—such as drinking coffee or presenting gifts to people who feed them—are based on 1) ___ and therefore fall into the category of 2) ___ rather than science. secondhand testimony, anecdote.

insurmountable 넘을 없는; 이겨낼 없는

inscrutable 알아볼 없는; 불가사의한

deprecate 비난하다

stolid 둔감한, 무신경한

impassive 무표정한, 아무런 감정이 없는

- The author’s best-selling book on Virginia Woolf is not (i) ___ treatment of her subject; on the contrary, it presents (ii) ___ portrait of the novelist, faults and all. an idealized, an unflinching.

- Scientists at chocolate manufacture attempts to ___ cocoa bean’s chemical composition, so that they can ___ the taste of cocoa bean in order to ___ a failure from cocoa bean suppliers. unlock, synthesize, prevent.

- Although in the mid-1970s nuclear power seemed poised for a still greater role in energy supply, in fact the ___of its prestige had already begun. waning, ebbing.

- Benjamin Franklin's reputation is so much one of appearing scientific investigation with commonsense empiricism that it is somewhat startling to realize how ___ great experiment's mentoring truly was. speculative, conjectural.

- The identity of hominid remains found in a cave in the Altai Mountains was ___ until Paabo and his colleagues ended the speculation by showing that DNA sequences indicated the bones belonged to Neanderthals. conjectural.

- The researcher noted that microbes, although ___, make up far more of the living protoplasm on Earth than all humans, animals and plants combined. diminutive, minuscule.

- Although most land snails are ___, the giant African snail is a notable exception; it can be 15 inches long and weigh 2 pounds. diminutive, minuscule.

- Like her literary heroine, George Eliot, Barbara Kingsolvers is an old-fashioned ___, deeply curious about all branches of human learning. polymath.

philistine 속물

tyro 초심자

bring off 해내다

- The woman who brought off this signal ___ achievement, based on three separate but interwoven visit to the Balkans and published just as the Second World War was disclosing itself as conflict of ultimate horror, was born Cicely Fairfield in 1892. She demonstrated early brilliance as reviewer and journalist, soon adopting the name Rebecca West(the heroine of Henrik Ibsen's play Rosersholm). polymathic, encyclopedic.

- It can be (i) ___ to read Margaret Fuller’s travel writing, as she produced accounts of her travel that (ii) ___ conventions of bourgeois travel narrative, often capitulating to the most well- worn clichés of the genre at precisely the moments when she sought most energetically to cast them off in favor of some new, more passionate mode of discernment. frustrating, conform to.

- It is not unusual for American education leaders to hold up another nation as a model for school reform: in the mid-nineteenth century, such figures ___ the professionalism and structure of the Prussian school system. hailed.

- Neuroscientists are excited by technological progress that facilitates brain mapping, the most ___ of them comparing their growing abilities to tremendous advances that led to unimaginable success of the Human Genome Project. sanguine.

- When the atmosphere over the city is at its best, it is peculiarly ___, and this clarity seems to distill the very special beauty of the place. limpid, pellucid.

- Many historians of the ancient world are wary of sounding (i) ___. Write so much as a sentence about the ancient world and the temptation is immediately to (ii) ___ it. Even in cases when the sources for a given event are (iii) ___, uncertainties and discrepancies crop up everywhere. dogmatic, qualify, plentiful.

fusty 퀴퀴한, 구식의

jovial 아주 쾌활한

- A cure for the common cold has been so elusive that is has become a modern symbol of ___. futility, pointlessness.

- In the discussions on international patent law, many (i) ___ issues will probably be pushed far into the future. This cautious approach makes diplomatic sense, since attempts over the past 15 years to reach international agreements on patents have (ii) ___ just such sensitive issues. contentious, foundered on.

convulsion 경련, 경기

- Coagulation factors are useful proteins whose simple names––many are known only by Roman numerals–– ___ their importance and the specificity of their roles in the thinning and clotting of blood. belie, mask.

- In establishing that the dust she had observed constitutes two percent of the mass in the quadrant, the astronomer showed that the dust extreme visual prominence ___ its relatively minor contribution to the total mass of the region. belie, mask.

permeable 투과성의

convolution 대단히 복잡한

- The era’s examples of ___ that are cited by the author can be balanced in part by certain examples of dissent during the same period. authoritarianism.

forbearance 관용, 관대

bemoan 한탄하다

- Given our species’ increasing numbers and appetites----which are reflected in and compounded by global climate change---even (i) ___ species are likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. If we are to avoid a calamitous loss of biodiversity, according to Golbe, we cannot simply let nature take its course. Ongoing conversation management is (ii) ___, as we have, in a sense, become nature. And the responsibilities that come with the role cannot be (iii) ___. now common, obligatory, jettisoned.

contrive 용케 ~하다, 어떻게든 ~하다

- Progressive and reactionary populist movements are not necessarily ___: each may, and usually does, possess features of the other. dichotomous, contradictory.

- Though it may seem as if more than a century of ___ has made the electrical grid an all-encompassing web connecting the whole of the continent, many vast and beautiful areas remain without power. expansion, augmentation.

- The stories of silent drama may often have been ___; yet, within those basic outlines, the true artists among silent-film actors could express emotional shadings that had no immediate analogue in language. elemental, rudimentary.

- Not all paleontologists agree that connections between the continents were (i) ___ just after the extinction of the dinosaurs. Some hold the view that North America, Asia, and South America had (ii) ___ immediately following the dinosaur extinction, pointing to (iii) ___ between ancient kinds of mammals that existed on all three continents at this time in support of their argument. limited, extensive contacts, similarities.

- William Perkins, his ___ speaking style notwithstanding, has long been seen as the moderate face of his political party. fiery, impassioned; vehement.

affable 상냥한, 사근사근한

deleterious 해로운, 유해한

vehement 격렬한, 맹렬한

torpor 마비 상태, 무감각; 무기력

ingest 섭취하다

- Young bats have to accumulate enough stored body fat to survive its first winter. Fat reserves provide the energy necessary for the long period of ___. They have to ___ foods as much as they could after birth. Thus it is ___ for them to be born in early summer. Another problem they faced is that male and female bats don’t need to ... . torpor, ingest, essential.

slipshod 대충하는, 엉성한

muddled 혼란스러워 하는, 갈피를 잡는

perfidious 믿을 없는

sanguine 낙관적인, 자신감이 넘치는

querulous 불평하는, 짜증내는

tetchy; touchy 성질이 나쁜, 걸핏하면 화를 내는

refractory 다루기 힘든, 불량한

fealty 충성 서약

hallucinatory 환각의

indiscernible 알아볼 없는, 이해할 없는

ungainly 어색한, 볼품없는

somber 어두침침한; 음산한

off-kilter 상태가 나쁜, 고장난

kilter 호조, 정상 상태

- There is a revelation on almost every page of this book, and the author’s prose is ___ in the best possible way: blunt, sweet, off-kilter and often quite funny. ungainly, awkward.

- Since it was committed to the idea of science as an international, politically neutral enterprise, the Royal Society of London refused to ___ members from enemy nations during world wars of the twentieth century. expel, oust.

- In American art the line between the good and the goods is not a hard-and-fast boundary, for in a commercial society the membrane that separates spirit and store is always ___. porous, permeable.

unwavering 변함없는, 확고한

- The town's air was consistently ___: depending in the breeze, one might be greeted with the sour effluvia of twenty breweries, choking fumes from the local factory, or brackish smell from the nearby river. malodorous, noisome.

- Contrary to certain recent analyses that paint a dire portrait of soil loss from farmland, a new study of surveying data reaching back to the 1930s shows that erosion rates have been steadily ___. waning, declining.

- Although people often describe the correct trajectory for a thrown or moving object, their efforts to explain that trajectory in terms of physics can reveal ___ understanding of the forces acting on the object. a naive, an unsophisticated.

- In her study of Korean cinema, Hyangjin Lee claims that film had been under governmental censorship since 1903, but it appears that in fact the first laws ___ cultural activities were not ___ until the second decade of 20th century. Even so, KIllick gives examples of reports of the ___ police control over drama performances in 1909. restricting, promulgated, tightening of. (http://koreanstudies.com/ks/ksr/ksr06-09.htm)

hedge 둘러싸다; 속박하다

- As he has matured as a scholar, Felmar has come to see the merit of qualification. His conclusions, which early in his career he ___, are now often ___. stated as absolutes, hedged.

- The writer argues that jewelry-grade diamonds, because they are both (i) ___ and (ii) ___, prove one of two conclusions: their purchasers have so much money they can spend it on goods that (iii) ___, or their purchasers are so committed to making others think they have such wealth that they are willing to go into debt to do so. expensibe, useless, serve no practical purpose.

fungible 대체 가능한, 대체성이 있는

- ___ have often shrilled that Austrialia's Great Barrier Reef is dying, a result of agricultural runoff from the ___ Queensland coast. In truth, the preservation of the reef ___, a combination of active government intervention and the beneficial effects of responsible tourism. Scaremongers, over-farmed, is something of a success.

- Making loans and fighting poverty are normally two of the least glamorous pursuits around, but remarkably enough put the two together, and you have an economic innovation that has become not just (i) ___ but downright (ii) ___. popular, chic. (http://www.azquotes.com/quote/287552)

- The quality of essays in this scholarly compilation is ___: some are provocative and innovative, while others seem ___. Still, their ___ and the book's well-organized design make it easy to scan to find what is most helpful. mixed, unoriginal, brevity.

- The book is not comprehensive but is, instead, (i) ___ in the most positive sense: (ii) ___ rather than settles. provocative, suggests.

- If the problem for African farmers is soil fertility, funding fertilizer seems ___. A closer examination of the data raises some troubling questions, though. It isn't clear whether it was the fertilizer or the rain that caused yields to increase. unimpeachable.

- A transformative scientific idea that emerged in the eighteenth century was the realization that slow, inexorable geological processes follow the basic laws of physics and chemistry. This seems ___ conclusion in hindsight, but its implication--that geological processes in the distant past must have ___ these very same laws--was ___ geologists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. an obvious, followed, revolutionary for. (link)

Early life insurers in the United States found themselves facing the problem of obtaining reliable information, as they needed the applicants themselves to provide truthful and complete answers to a standard set of questions. In an attempt to personalize the relationship between the insurers and their individual applicants, firms selected highly respected local citizens to act as their agents. These agents were expected to evaluate the appearances of the applicants, unearth the evidence for unhealthy family histories or questionable habits, and to attest to the respectability of the people writing testimonial letters on the applicants’ behalf. In short, the initial purpose of the agent system was not to actively solicit consumers, but to recreate the glass-bowl mentality associated with small towns and city neighbors. (link)

salutary 유익한

- While the evils of extreme income inequality should not be sensationalized, evidence shows that the effects of inequality on the political and economic fabric of society are indeed often ___. pernicious.

arduous; laborious 힘든, 고된

assiduous 근면성실한

abound 아주 많다, 풍부하다

- Typefaces, in one sense, are just like styles of shoes: They ___ because different people had different tastes and identities and both creators and users value novelty for its own sake. proliferate, abound.

- An abundance of nutrient-rich pollution in estuaries causes algae to ___, much as houseplants grow better when their soil contains added fertilizer. proliferate, abound.

inherent to 고유한

immanent in 내재하는

excoriate 벗겨지게 하다; 혹평하다, 맹비난하다

inimical 해로운; 반하는, 적대적인

- The ex-minister's real crime, in the eyes of his ___ political friends who subsequently abandoned him, was not so much that he was wrong as that he raised questions that must not be raised. erstwhile, former.

daunting 벅찬, 주눅이 들게 하는

magnanimity 아량, 관대함

stringent 엄중한, 긴박한

sycophantic 알랑거리는, 아첨하는

- While early biographies of Florence Nightingale tended to be quite ___, Lytton Strachey's irreverent 1918 essay about her ushered in a new era, making it acceptable, even fashionable, to criticize her. sycophantic. (link)

pedantic 지나치게 규칙을 찾는

ostensible 표면적으로는

- Scientists said that cosmology was the field where the ratio of theory to data was (i) ___: there was an abundance of theories, but almost no data. Recently, however, that ratio has flipped. A huge and ever-increasing amount of data has (ii) ___ all theories but one. nearly infinite, eliminated.

- The historian of ancient science Otto Neugebauer concluded that Babylonian astronomical tests are (i) ___ because everything has been eliminated from the astronomy except observations and the mathematical consequences of an initial hypothesis about the fundamental character of the astronomical movements. This judgment cohered with the high level of mathematical theory, which (ii) ___ mathematical computation together with empirical observation as (iii) ___ of science and denied any role to speculative hypothesis of a strongly theoretical nature. scientific, admitted, necessary characteristics. (link)

- Shifting fortunes take a conventional approach to American union history by simply explaining the reasons behind union growth and decline in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: it is a chronologically and thematically ___ study and nothing more. confined, circumscribed.

- She constantly ___ herself for not living up to her own ideals -- for not working hard enough or not having motives that were pure enough. excoriated.

controvertible 논쟁의 여지가 있는

[LL_민족_4] 1. primordialists modernists 관점 평가. 2. Younger Koreanists 관점 동일, 7세기 K, P, S 사람들이 한국이라는 collectivity 갖추었다고 여길 없음. 3. 마지막 문단, 한반도는 unified political collectivity 가지고 있고, 서구의 민족 개념은 한국에 완전히 적용할 없음. 4. 통일국가의 정치적 실체는 언제 출현?

luminous 야광의, 아주 선명한

overbearing 고압적인

long-winded 지루한, 장황한

permeable 침투할 있는, 투기성의

importunate 성가시게 조르는

garrulous 수다스러운

partiality 편애, 편파

hidebound 완고한

parity 동등함

cede 양도하다, 이양하다

reticence 과묵

aloof 냉담한

callow 미숙한, 풋내기인

circumspect 신중한

obtrusive (보기 싫게) 눈에 띄는, 두드러지는

afforestation 조림

inert 기력이 없는, 비활성의

conducive ~ 좋은

complacency 안주; 만족

disparate 서로 다른, 이질적인

ingenious 기발한, 독창적인

solicitous 열심인; 세심히 배려하는

wallow 뒹굴다; 젖어 있다

inexorable 멈출 없는; 거침없는

roil 휘젓다; 안달나게 하다

arbiter 결정권자

dovetail 들어맞다

vivacious 명랑한; 쾌활한

interlocutor 대화자

supplication 탄원, 애원

induct 취입시키다; 입대시키다

riffraff 쓰레기, 하층민

acquit 무죄 선고하다; 능력 발휘하다

strapping 건장한

concur 동의하다; 의견의 일치를 보다

fait accompli 기정사실

to boot 그것도; moreover

entrails 내장

elope 눈맞아 달아나다

forfeit 몰수당하다 

swell with 부풀다

fumble 더듬거리다

last straw 일루의 희망

surmise 추측하다

derelict 유기된, 버려진

raucous 요란하고 거친

in cahoot(s) 한통속이 되어

fidgety 가만히 못있는

voluble 입심 좋은 

cronyism 정실인사

ricochet 맞고 튀어나오다

stentorian 우렁찬

ransack 뒤집어 엎다

corridors of power 상층부

insolent 버릇없는; 무례한

staggering 충격적인, 믿기 어려운

spate 빈발

trite 진부한

elicit 끌어내다; 알아내다

pernicious 치명적인; 악성의

connivance 방조; 묵인

unrequited 짝사랑의; 무보수의

courtesan 창녀

delectable 아주 맛있는

rave about 열심히 얘기하다

unclog 장애(방해) 없애다

charlatan 사기꾼, 돌팔이

aver 단언하다; 주장하다

seductive 매혹적인

consecrate 축성하다

vegetate 무위도식 하다

cudgel 곤봉

incontrovertible 반박의 여지가 없는

a fit of the blues 우울한 기분

deaden 줄이다, 죽이다

nostrum 엉터리 처방

repudiate 거부하다; 부인하다

multifarious 다양한, 다채로운

allusion 암시

viz.

lay hold of 잡다; 이용하다

testify to 증명하다

unwittingly 부지불식간에

debunk 폭로하다; 가면을 벗기다

not least 특히

abject 극도로 비참한

a wisp of 줄기의

intemperate 무절제한

toady 알랑(거리다)

squalor 불결한 상태

elate 고무하다

recant 철회하다

retract 철회하다

to the effect 라는 취지의

dabble 조금 해보다

stupendous 엄청나게

abjure 포기하다

abrasive 거친, 거슬리는

spurn 일축하다

rudder , 방향타

affront 모욕( 주다)

devious 기만적인; 돌아가는

scrounge 얻어내다

livid  격노한; 시퍼런

muddle 혼란스럽게 하다

relent (마침내) 도의하다; 수그러들다

be that as it may 그렇기는 하지만; 그럼에도 불구하고

in toto 완전히

terse 간결한

ignominous 수치스러운

rancid 산패한; 변질된

piecemeal 단편적인

apoplectic 졸도할 지경의

walkout 작업중단

disgorge 쏟아내다 

contravene 위반; 위배하다

assent 찬성; 승인하다

dissipation 소멸; 탕진

abut 인접해 있다

gruffness 무뚝뚝함

imbroglio 곤란

potent 강한, 힘센

heady 자극적인; 의기양양한

elide 생략하다

caprice 변덕; whim

clamor 소리로 요구하다

goad 들들 볶다

not in the least 조금도; 전혀

jut 돌출하다 

exigency 급한 볼일

ilk 종류, 동류

transfix 얼어붙게 만들다

demure 얌전한

stem 막다, 저지하다

bereft of 전무한

strident 귀에 거슬리는; 단호한

polyglot 여러 언어를 쓰는

convocation 집회; 소집

concur 동의하다

clairvoyance 예지력, 신통력

superfluous 불필요한

wherewithal ; 수단, 기술

redound 이바지하다; 이익이 미치다

premonition 예감, 징후

expropriate 수용; 도용하다

stake a claim 권리를 주장하다

unscrupulous 거리낌없는, 비양심적인

egg on 꼬드기다; 부추기다

the nitty gritty 핵심; 요체

spurious 가짜의, 의사의

collude in 공모하다

chattel 동산, 소지품

dredge 준수하다; 건져올리다

divulge 누설하다

congenital 선천적인, 성격상의

expunge 지우다; 삭제하다

founder 실패; 침몰하다

 

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자료/너와나의지랄이2016. 10. 25. 02:26

trepid 소심한, 벌벌 떠는

trepidation 두려움, 공포

apprehension 우려, 불안; 체포

misgiving 의혹, 불안감

taxonomy 분류(학)

imperturbable 쉽게 동요하지 않는, 차분한

construe 이해하다, 해석하다

- Although its director ___ that the movie uses a documentary approach in portraying the famous sit-down strike, in practice its characters are heavily fictionalized and fall into familiar Hollywood types. asserts, maintains.

- Those who took Clark’s old-mannered compliance for obsequiousness (i) ___ him: his apparent (ii) ___ veiled a fervent (iii) ___ of the authority that others exercised over him, one that he occasionally expressed by discreetly sabotaging their most important projects. misconstrued, acquiescence, detestation.

- The students' ___ nature were in sharp contrast to imperturbable disposition of their teacher. volatile.

- The union states its position polemically, it's leaders say they are fighting to save good jobs while ___ corporations replace full-time workers with part-time ones in order to cut down on both wages and benefits. rapacious, avaricious.

- Despite the scathing precision with which she satirizes the lies of the social aspirants and moneyed folk, the writer appears to ___ being part of the world she presents as so ___. relish, insufferable.

- Individuals interested in longevity have sought to fine-tune their bodies with all kinds of ___ diets: only raw foods; only plant; only the flesh, fruit, and nuts that prehistoric humans would have hunted and foraged. proscriptive, exacting.

proscriptive 인권을 박탈하는, 추방의

exacting 힘든, 까다로운

In the wild, no other mammal ___ individuals from another species; badgers do not tend hares, deer do not nurture baby squirrels, lions do not care for giraffes. fosters, adopts.

- Convinced of the gravity of her poetry, Voigt must have found the reviews of her most recent collection (i) ___ reading: one amused reviewer thought that it was unrecognizable as poetry but decidedly (ii) ___. depressing, diverting.

diverting 여흥의, 즐거운

Unambiguous texts can allow their readers to (i) ___ them quickly, but ambiguous texts can have the attractive (ii) ___ of multiple possible interpretations, all of which can be considered equally (iii) ___, and none of which is the single true meaning. comprehend, allure, valid.

- Some lawyers would like to work for the Supreme Court cases without any charge due to the ___they may get: this might help them in the future to get a more eminent job. prestige.

- No matter what people wishes, the government will not enact with it; it is ___ for people to make thing become legitimate. fruitless, futile.

- Pioneering medical research scientist’ (i) ___ claims regarding the (ii) ___ new researchers make the public wonder their own doctors are not dispensing miracles. There’re forces both external and internal, on scientists that most require them to (iii) ___. Without money, there is no science. Researchers must constantly convince administrators who control tax dollars, investors, and individual donors that the work they are doing will make a difference. inflated, potential benefits of, oversell.

cower 몸을 숙이다, 웅크리다

- Our mass media are much more fascinated by bad ideas or the failure of good ones than by successes: we drown in bad news --tales of how things went wrong--but we have only the most ___ discussion on how they might go right. cursory, perfunctory.

sycophantic 아첨하는, 알랑거리는

obsequious 아부하는

lugubrious 침울한

provenance 기원, 출처, 유래

- Recent research runs counter to the long-cherished notion that a small drop in body temperature during and after surgery is either ___ or actually protects the patient by slowing metabolism and reducing the body’s demand for blood and oxygen. immaterial, inconsequential.

trenchant 정통을 찌르는

complacency 만족함, 안주

a far cry from ~과는 현저히 다른

- The macromolecule RNA is common to all living beings, and DNA, which is found in all organisms except some bacteria, is almost ___. universal (ubiquitous).

- Many readers today consider the moral sentiments expressed in the ancient writers’ work to be quite vapid, and in the seventeenth century they were similarly regarded as ___. jejune.

- I knew well, from experience with hundreds of hired crew members on her boats, how (I) ___ attitudes can be: how one negative influence can impel an otherwise (ii) ____ member of a crew to quit. infectious, contented.

- Many scholars have argued that the United States Supreme Court usually (i) ___ public opinion in its decisions because it fears that it will (ii) ___ if does not, when it does depart from public opinion, it whips up political maelstroms. hews to, lose public support.

hew to 따르다, 준수(신봉)하다

whip up 자극하다, 흥분시키다

maelstrom 대혼란, 소용돌이

- Although Uruk in southern Mesopotamia has been (i) ___ as being both the first city and the model for later comes, at least two sites in northern Mesopotamia have yielded clear evidence of urbanization long before the existing evidence from Uruk, and other discoveries indicate that some of the (ii) ___ early urbanism were invented not in southern Mesopotamia but in the north. These findings have led some archaeologists to (iii) ___ a serious reconsideration about when and where the first cities arose. established, defining features of, propose.

- Ascorbate readily oxidizes in aerated aqueous solutions, and the PH of such solutions, in part, ___ the rate of oxidation, since the higher the PH, the greater the rate of oxidation. determines, governs.

aerated 탄산 가스가 든; 화난, 흥분한

- Although the employees’ union and company management, entering into contract negotiations, both issued statements encouraging ___, acrimony between the two sides continued unabated. civility, comity.

mordancy 독설; 신랄함

- The current ___ of repackaged music under Miles Davis’ name might prompt any reasonable person to conclude that the recording vault has been plundered bare. glut, surfeit.

- A record company recently started to sell ___ of repackaged old Cds; this seems to tell us it’s not releasing good records any more. glut, surfeit.

modicum 약간, 조금

insular 배타적인, 편협한; 섬과 관련된

coterie 일파, 집단

interloper 침입자

- The media have constantly disparaged the governor’s competence and have found a public only too eager to applaud their ___. mockery, derision.

stupefaction 마비; 깜짝 놀람

incredulity 쉽사리 믿지 않음, 불신

certitude 확신

provident 장래를 준비하는

- The perennial problem for critics of nineteenth-century novelist Charlotte Yonge is the relationship of her realism to her (i) ___. While admiring her complex psychological portraits and detailed descriptions of quotidian family life, readers since her own time have tended to fault her improbable manipulation of plot to teach a moral lesson. Indeed, many critics (ii) ___ her because of her willingness to (iii) ___. didacticism, dismiss, sacrifice credibility.

- Tolstoy wrote many works of non-fiction, and professed (i) ___ these explorations of ethics and religion over his novels and short stories. The fiction writer in him, however, was hard to (ii) ___. Tolstoy's late novel, Hadji Murad, was never published during his life; this fact suggests some of the author's ambivalence about the work, but Tolstoy could not resist writing it. Far from the near-didactic nature of his non-fiction, Hadji Murad is a short novel with the breadth and power of an epic, with vivid characterization and intense storytelling that sweep the reader away. While the reader senses the moral concerns of the tale's creator, the short novel is a far cry from the (iii) ___ of Tolstoy's non-fiction. a preference for, suppress, didacticism. (link)

Unlike some mammals--cows and sheep, for instance--that are notably ___, lions have a wide range of facial expressions. impassive.

- Recent scholarship has questioned the (i) ___ of tropical forests around the world. Archaeologists have shown, for example, that the largest contiguous tract of what was thought to be virgin rain forest in the southern Amazon had been transformed into a cultural parkland before European contact, and many of the forest islands in West Africa’s savanna forest transition zone are (ii) ___ as well. naturalness, anthropogenic.

- In the solar system, collisions among the planets are among the most___ processes shaping surfaces: many a picture of the planets in it show that a proliferation of impact craters happened in the last 4 to 5 billion years. pervasive

vivacious 명랑한, 쾌활한

clairvoyant 투시하는, 천리안의

- Many innovative photographers were delighted to find in instant photography a mode that encouraged them to stop viewing photographers as___ and start viewing it as something they could handle with spontaneity, even derision. sacrosanct.

sacrilegious 신성모독의, 무엄한

- Modern industrial development commenced in Shanghai in the late 19th century, with the incursion of Western settlements. Soon afterwards cultural activities associated with a modern industrial society made their appearance. Western influence was particularly visible in Shanghai’s architecture and urban space, especially in the concession areas. So Western influence was abhorrent to Shanghai architecture, that’s why it is still ___ today. disdained.

- Unenlightened authoritarian managers rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups: a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents ___. schism.

- Slight but ___ variation in the timing of the star's pulses led astronomers to deduce that it was being pulled backwards and forwards by three planets orbiting around it. regular.

- The dictators’ gleaming military uniform and imperial paraphernalia sharply contrast with the ___ fashion favored by most other contemporary political leaders. unostentatious, modest.

- Even if the merits of the proposal are (i) ___, faculty members may be reluctant to (ii) ___, given their fear of offending the group that champions it. dubious, demur.

demur 이의를 제기하다

ethology 인성학; 행동학

anthropomorphism 의인화; 신인 동형론

- Even a decade ago, at the time that Binti Jua rescued the injured boy, the idea of animal morality would have been met with ___ and a “surely you must be joking!” dismissal. However, recent research is demonstrating that animals not only act ___, but also have the capacity for empathy, forgiveness, trust, reciprocity, and much more as well. raised eyebrow, altruistically.

rectitude 정직, 청렴, 강직

- What once seemed a quixotic vision---the "Subway to the Sea," connecting Union Station in downtown Los Angeles to the Pacific Ocean in Santa Monica---no longer seems quite so___. impracticable.

- A clever form of diplomacy involves subtly inducing the other party to propose your preference so that your ___ their requests appears as the granting of concession. accession to, acquiescence to.

- The often-cited parallels between human communities and insect colonies are ___: the cooperation found among social insects is essentially due to the insects' genetic ties, while humans often collaborate with non-relatives. contradictory.

hackneyed 진부한

rapprochement 화해, 친선

wistful 애석해 하는

vacuous 멍청한, 얼빠진

itinerant 떠돌아 다니는, 순회하는

peripatetic 이동해 다니는, 소요학파의

roisterer; carouser 흥청망청하는 사람

- (i) ___, we can safely infer causality by appealing to 一些原理 (牛顿物理学, for example) that are well understood and已经表明可以被运用到 comparably straightforward circumstances. 但是, for the opposing class, which consists of (ii)  ___systems 比如全球经济, 人类物理学, or 人类想法, explanations of singular events are usually (iii) ___, absent the requisite accounting for the intricate dynamics of such systems. In simple situations, complex, unjustified.

disgorge 쏟아 내다, 토해 내다

- It is possible for human to go forty or more hours without sleep and still be able to (i) ___ information acquired at the beginning of the sleepless period. Thus, when we are considering a role for sleep in human memory consolidation, we are referring to a possible role in the (ii) ___ encoding of information and optimization of its recall, not a (iii) ___ of sleep for recalling events of the prior day. disgorge, longer-term, requirement.

- While the writer was best known for her much-ballyhooed ___, her impact reached far beyond memorable quips. drollness.

drollness 우스움, 익살맞음

stoicism 금기, 금욕

fastidiousness 결벽, 까다로움

congenial 마음에 맞는, 알맞은

- Managers who categorically squelch insights from low-tiered employees run the obvious hazard of (i) ___creativity; conversely, these very same managers are more likely to (ii) ___ any ideas that flow down from the top brass. smothering, unquestioningly embrace.

besmirch 더럽히다

- After years of assiduously cultivating an image of integrity, the mayor was acutely aware that just one scandal could forever ___ his reputation in the public's eyes. besmirch, tarnish.

profuse 많은, 다량의

rue 후회하다

- Although the causes of the ongoing schism include cultural and political factors, these theological differences continue as points of contention between the churches. And science community also has been ___ sectarianism. riven with.

riven 분열된, 갈라진

- Advertising, formerly called the last resort to create or distribute music, has transformed itself to ___ of music that would otherwise be unheard. a champion, an advocate/a promoter.

cupidity; avarice; greed; covetousness 탐욕

- Glass, by definition, is ___ in its structure: its atoms lack order and are arranged in every which ways. amorphous.

- Within the culture as a whole, natural science has been so successful that the word scientific is used in (i) ___ manner; it is often assumed that to call something “scientific” is to imply that its reliability has been (ii) ___ by research whose results cannot reasonably be (iii) ___. honorific, established, disputed.

- The economic recovery was somewhat lopsided: (i) ___ in some of the industries economics while (ii) ___ in others of them. feeble, robust.

untenable 방어될 수 없는, 옹호될 수 없는

discriminative 특이한, 식별하는

- The university's once ___ department of economic history has lost prestige and transmogrified into a department of management and marketing. respected, venerable.

- The report is admittedly ___: it is intended to suggest new lines of research rather than to deal with the subject in a ___ manner. sketchy, thorough/exhaustive.

cavalier 무신경한

- Creativity is no longer seen as ___ inspiration leading to poem or painting, it has come to be thought of as something permeating the whole of a person's life. a momentary, an evanescent. 

swill; guzzle 꿀꺽꿀꺽 마시다

purvey 공급하다, 조달하다

- For parents, the pleasure of letting children choose which book to read aloud together is not always ___: I well remembered my inner groans when my child would constantly pick my least favorite book from the shelf. unalloyed, unqualified.

slight 무시하다

- Citing the corruption and intrigue that pervaded politics in the city, my colleague ___ the newspaper’s trove of journalism prizes, declaring that finding great stories in the city must be effortless. slighted, disparaged.

reclamation 교정, 개간; 교화

- To the avid reader of E.O. Wilson, much of his most recent book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge will be (i) ___, as the book represents the culmination of a life spent thinking about everything from the social lives of ants to the social lives of people. Nonetheless, new thoughts have been mixed in with the old to produce a book remarkable for its (ii) ___ and ambition. a predictable, purview.

- Just as different human groups have different kinds of musical traditions, different groups of whales have different dialects evident in their songs, and it is possible for one group to influence the (i) ___ of another. It has been documented more than once that a group of whales will (ii) ___ its own tunes and adopt the new songs of an unfamiliar group. tastes, abandon.

abstruse 난해한

- The controversy about Alexander the Great’s personality derives from the fact that our sources are (i) ___, all eyewitness accounts having perished. What remains is, at best, (ii) ___ (one history, for instance, is based largely on the now-lost memoirs of Alexander’s alleged half-brother, Ptolemy) and at worst, highly unreliable. inadequate, secondhand.

- Carmen's affection for her sister, though not ___, was too plainly greater to permit painless departure. unbounded/immoderate.

veracious 진실을 말하는, 정직한

- Any notion of justice in the fortunes of artists is ___; works of equal value and quality produce quite different returns or no returns at all. baseless, untenable.

- There are great ___ in countries' green house gas emissions especially in per capita terms: while the United States and China are similar in aggregate emissions, United States per capita emissions are huge multiple of China's. disparities, variances.

- Until the advent of film, commercial entertainment in England occurred only where concentrated urban populations provided audiences large enough to make it remunerative: theaters and music halls were (i) ___ in rural villages. But village cinemas quickly become (ii) ___, even though they were ramshackle affairs in comparison to the urban picture palaces. spartan, profitable.

ramshackle 금방이라도 무너질 듯 한

- What they see in Tanaka is the one candidate capable of ___ leadership, in direct contrast to Williamson, whose term in office has been marred by ___. decisive, vacillation/irresolution.

grandstanding 이목을 끌려는 행위

pecuniary 금전상의

- In 1884, Sewall and Dow agreed to join Roosevelt in the Dakota territory for reasons that appear to have been ___: Sewell later recalled that Roosevelt guaranteed them a share of anything made in the cattle business. pecuniary, economic.

- The author clearly supports the causes he writes about, but he is more a narrator than (i) ___. Some say he should have included (ii) ___, but he is wise to let the fact speak for themselves. They are complex enough to prompt many kinds of interpretation, and he would bog down the complicated tale if he tried to adjudicate all of their competing claims. an advocate, analysis of events.

peccadillo 사소한 잘못, 실수

- Seemingly ___ her reputation for tediousness, the principal ___ chatty style speech. embarrassed, affected/opted.

- The principal was seemingly ___ by his stodgy reputation that he ___ to give the lecture in a chatty style. embarrassed, affected/opted.

Contrary to those who fear the impact of invasive species on native plants, the biologist contend that the threat posed to biodiversity by nonnative species is often ___. For instance, a study of garlic mustard, a nonnative plant now thriving in Minnesota's oak forests, found that garlic mustard abundance in forest plots was not ___ the number of other plant species there. exaggerated, related to.

glaucoma 녹내장

dissonance 불협화음, 불화, 충돌

untethered; divorced 줄에 매여 있지 않은

unerring; settled 틀림없는, 항상 정확한

- Documentary seems, more than ever, like a catchall rubric, a label that can be affixed to ___, even contradictory products, ranging from the pranks of the elusive street artist Banksy (recorded in “Exit Through the Gift Shop”) to “Baseball: The Tenth Inning,” Ken Burns’s meditation on the recent history of baseball. heterogeneous.

catchall 잡동사니 넣는 자루; 다목적용의

diffident 조심스러운, 소심한

- Investors are grateful that the attorney general has stepped in to pursue inquiries into misfeasance in the financial markets, given that the regulators officially charged with policing the industry have been ___. diffident.

- For certain economists, "pure” economic theory, that is, economic theory ___ a specific social structure, is impossible, much like a concept of anatomy that investigates no specific species. abstracted from, divorced from.

crotchety 쉽게 짜증을 내는

- No wonder that classicists tend to be nervous of sounding overly (i) ___. Write so much as a sentence about the ancient world and the temptation is immediately to (ii) ___ it. Even when the sources are at their most (iii) ___, uncertainties and discrepancies crop up everywhere. dogmatic, qualify, plentiful.

- It would be imprecise to characterize her scholarship as (i) ___ : though her etymological discussion is necessarily esoteric, there is nothing (ii) ___ about the conclusions she derives from it. arcane, obscure.

- His theory cannot be regarded as (i) ___. Although he quoted some esoteric ideas in the theory, he was never (ii) ___. arcane, obscure.

etymological 어원의

- The identity of hominid remains found in a cave in the Altai Mountains was ___ until Paabo and his colleagues ended the speculation by showing that DNA sequences indicated the bones belonged to Neanderthals. conjectural.

mirthful 유쾌한, 명랑한

- They applaud the musicals of the 1930s and 1940s, whose plethora of stars, jokes, dances witty dialogue, and general gaiety make today's offering seem ___ by comparison. cheerless, gloomy.

- The journey to (i) ___, when it starts from a vantage as (ii) ___ as Dunsany’s, is often as (iii) ___ as the path to glory. How did a writer of such talent and renown wind up nearly forgotten? obscurity, eminent, unfathomable.

- Though humanitarian emergencies are frequent features of television news, such exposure seldom ___ the public, which rather seems resigned to a sense of impotency. galvanizes.

- There has been great enthusiasm in the United States for reducing fossil fuel dependence by increasing production of biofuels from crops such as corn and switchgrass, but this (i) ___ about biofuels potential should be (ii) ___ by a realistic appraisal of the costs and challenges of biofuel production. exuberance, tempered.

forbearance 관용, 관대

exuberance 풍부, 충일, 무성함, 윤택

- If the candidate wins the election now that rivals within his own party have (i) ___ him in a campaign that was (ii) ___ without their help, he will be mightily indebted to these self-styled saviors. rallied to, foundering.

- Galaxy Zoo set a standard for citizen-scientist participation project, zealous volunteers (i) ___ the project’s organizers by classifying an entire catalog of galaxies years head of schedule, (ii) ___ by (iii) ___ of the Galaxy Zoo team was inspired to pursue lines of research they had never even imagined. astonished, buoyed, alacrity.

buoy 기분을 좋게 하다, 들뜨게 하다

- Fears that the recent sharp rise in oil prices is an indication that oil is running out appear to be (i) ___. The Middle East still contains vast oil supplies. Furthermore, even if new oil finds elsewhere have been (ii) ___ than in the past, substantial quantities of oil can be profitably stripped from tar and shale. unfounded, less frequent.

- Although one can adduce myriad of examples of ecosystem disruption by nonindigenous species, nevertheless most introduced species that survived in fact appear to have quite ___ effects on the ecosystem they have invaded. minimal, trifling.

- The difficulty of reforming electoral politics is not lack of the right tools but the need to put them into the hands of impartial agents: the goal should be to build capacity while ___. constraining, deterring.

- Political advertising may well be the most (i) ___ kind of advertising: political candidates are usually quite (ii) ___, yet their campaign advertisements often hide important differences behind smoke screens of smiles and empty slogans. deceptive, dissimilar.

- Female video artists’ rise to prominence over the past 30 years has ___ the ascent of video as an art form: it is only within the past three decades that video art has attained its current, respected status. matched, paralleled.

obviate 제거하다, 배제하다

- The paleontologist examined the problem afresh, believing that the accepted classification ___ the essential continuity of the specimens by making specious distinctions among them. belied.

flesh out 살을 붙이다; 구체화 하다

- At the heart of present-day studies in computational authorship attribution (AA) lies the hypothesis that each author has so personal a writing style that it can function as stylistic DNA. Any given authors style, in other words, is regarded as (i) ___ and (ii) ___ every other authors writing style. stable, distinguishable.

- Essein’s (i) ___ solving the complicated problems generates envy and awe, but only among her fellow experts. For these experts, such problems are so (ii) ___ that they (iii) ___ virtually everyone else. facility in, arcane, mystify.

- As a critic, Nelson is noteworthy for her ___; rather than representing fully formed pronouncements, she is willing to let us watch as she works out her ideas. humility, modesty.

- Many legislators who helped Roosevelt shape the New Deal ___ the fact that emerging social problems affected every segment of the population; nonetheless, they often acted with a view to aiding only their own constituents. bemoaned.

- In a production process that is complex and often unpredictable roles that start out discretely defined may become quite ___. confusing.

- For a long time now, revenues from Broadway musicals have been ___ with their quality: profits are higher than ever, but with few exceptions, the musicals are not ___. at odds, first-rate.

- Wilson is wont to emphasize the ___ of ants, how ants with full stomachs will regurgitate liquid food for those without, or how the old will fight so the young can survive. beneficence, altruism.

incisive 예리한, 날카로운

- Doris Kearns Goodwin’s elegant, incisive study of Lincoln ___ those whose knowledge of Lincoln is an amalgam of high school history and popular mythology as well as those who are experts. gratify, please.

- One big challenge with placebo responses is that they are ___: people given the same inert pill or potion may show wildly different reactions, and the effects can vary widely according to each person's illness. capricious, unpredictable.

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자료/너와나의지랄이2016. 10. 24. 05:44

vicarious  대리의, 간접적인

parsimonious 검약하는, 인색한

The research on otters’ environmental requirements is surprisingly (i) ___. One reason for this has to do with the estimation of how much they use different areas. Doing so may be (ii) ___ in some kinds of terrain, such as Shetland where the Eurasian otters are active in daytime and have clear individual markings. There it is possible to identify the individuals over stretches of coast of a few kilometers and to see what kinds of coast they use. However, the field conditions are (iii) ___. difficult, relatively simple, exceptional.

- The notion of film producers as the ogres of the movie business has proved an (i) ___ one, but according to The Producers by Tim Adler, it is not always granted in reality. Attacking what he calls the “auteur myth”--the idea of the director as the purveyor of art in an industry otherwise peopled with (ii) ___ --he places at the heart of his book an image of the producer, not the director, as the primary (iii) ___ force in the movie. enduring, profitmongers, creative.

- Laws protecting intellectual property are intended to stimulate creativity, yet some forms of creative work have never enjoyed legal protection-a situation that ought to be of great interest. If we see certain forms of creative endeavor (ⅰ) ___ as a result of uncontrolled copying, we might decided to (ⅱ) ___ intellectual property law. Conversely, if unprotected creative work (ⅲ) ___ in the absence of legal rules against copying, we would do well to know how such flourishing is sustained. languishing, extend, manages to thrive.

- Tompkinson’s prior donations to the university, while very generous, failed to ___ the magnitude of her latest gift. portend/presage, predict.

- Scientists seriously worry about recent abnormal phenomena; If the ongoing connection of global warming effects and the rise of sea levels in innumerable parts of world continue, bigger changes to the planet could be ___. presaged, portended.

- A hallmark of certain nineteenth-century mystery novels was the reform agenda of their authors, who ostensibly sought to expose economic injustice while depicting the seamy underside of urban life. In reality, however, these claims to a radical political agenda were often (i) ___ meant to give lurid thrillers the appearance of (ii) ___. disingenuous, high-minded purpose.

- Studies of hermaphroditic plants may exhibit sampling bias against self-fertilizing and cross-fertilizing species, thus inflating the frequency of species using a mixed mating system (both self-fertilizing and cross-fertilizing); nevertheless the number of mixed-system species is not ___. trivial.

- The film was a ___: its elements were assembled more or less haphazardly from a dozen of different sources. pastiche.

burlesque 풍자시

- The candidate seeks to depict his opponent as being ___, as one who is simply unable to make a decision and stand his ground. inconstant, capricious.

- Readers have long considered Lawd Today, Richard Wright’s first written and last published novel, ___; the novel simply seems inconsistent with the image of what a Wright text should do or be. an anomaly, an aberration.

- Gravitational waves---ripples in the geometry of space-time---are analogous to electromagnetic waves. The challenge in trying to observe these waves directly is that they are extremely weak. To make waves large enough to be (i) ___, the most (ii) ___ events in the universe are required: supernova explosions, the formation of black holes, or the collision of stars. Even so, the effects are (iii) ___. The geometry changes so little that a distance of several kilometers changes by less than the diameter of proton. detectable, violent, minuscule.

- Bone is a physiologically ___ tissue: it can change size and shape to meet the body’s needs during the various stages of an animal’s life. active.

- Although Professor Pearson’s colleagues often complained that he was (i) ___, his friends were quick to defend him from this charge of (ii) ___. mercurial, inconstancy.

- The author paints a rather dark picture of book publishing as a hidebound industry, one that is facing a profound change in its mode of production but is so (i) ___ its past as to be (ii) ___ opportunities offered by technological change. encumbered by, unable to seize.

- Traditional Vietnamese culture has long promoted the idea of gender equality. Founding myths ___ the equal division of labor in child care for mothers and fathers. As is often the case, however, theoretical commitments are ___ actual processes. In reality, gender-based ___ persists. celebrate, incommensurate with, stratification.

- Because movie studios, under pressure to generate international sales, have favored big-budget pictures with fantasy plots, the representation of everyday domestic life has largely been ___ other media, such as television and literature. left to, cede to.

- The governor might conceivably find a genuine resolution to the budgetary dilemma, but she may be tempted to engage in deception: a ___ exercise in fiscal prudence. specious.

- In aquatic environment, the herbicide atrazine is most likely to (i) ___ developing amphibians when it is highly diluted than when it is much more concentrated, a new study suggests. Although counterintuitive, the finding is (ii) ___ some past research on atrazine and studies showing that other hormonally active compounds are most damaging at trace concentrations. kill, consistent with.

- Space is often referred to as final frontier, as the only realm of which humankind has still to gain substantial underlying, yet, the ocean is also another vast area about which our knowledge is ___. rudimentary, sketchy.

- China's rapidly growing population is the main threat facing large carnivores in the People's Republic. Increasingly policies aimed at limiting population growth have been (i) ___, nevertheless, the country's vast size and the isolation of many of its regions mean that human populations in areas where large carnivores still occur (ii) ___. This human pressure has (iii) ___ the south China tiger. implemented, can grow unchecked, doomed.

- Hidebound by cloying commercial radio and clueless record executives, the American pop music scene has frequently depended on cities at the edges of the cultural map to provide a much-needed shot of (i) ___. Seattle, Minneapolis, Austin, Texas, and Athens, Georgia, have all served as temporary pivot points, churning out bands and defining the sound of the moment. Even Omaha, Nebraska, had its 15 minutes not so long ago. The momentary (ii) ___ seems to come out of nowhere – as if someone blows a whistle only those in the know can hear, and suddenly record executives and journalists are crawling all over what had previously been an obscure locale. originality, consensus.

- While normal floods resulting from usual monsoon rainfall are ___ the growth of crops, recently there has been an increase in the frequency of high-intensity floods that do not have such welcome effects. essential for, indispensable for.

unpropitious 계제가 나쁜, 불길한

meretricious 겉치레뿐인, 겉만 번지르르한

- Despite the ___ of medical information available through e-mail, the Internet, and mobile devices, not many patients are taking advantage of the potential of electronic communications for health-related. wealth, profusion.

unreserved 전적인, 조금도 거리낌 없는

meander 구불구불하다; 거닐다

- The spacecraft’s considerable heft made an unusual ___ way for a meander through the solar system, under the influence of gravitational of three large bodies. indirect, circuitous.

- There has been (i) ___ elephant's fabled mental capacities until recently, when these behavioral observations have begun to be (ii) ___ by brain science. MRI scans of an elephant's brain suggest that even relative to its overall size it has a large hippocampus, the component in the mammalian brain linked to memory and an important part of its limbic system, which is involved in precessing emotions. only anecdotal evidence for, buttressed.

- Many of the unusual behaviors attributed to crows—such as drinking coffee or presenting gifts to people who feed them—are based on 1) ___ and therefore fall into the category of 2) ___ rather than science. secondhand testimony, anecdote.

insurmountable 넘을 수 없는; 이겨낼 수 없는

inscrutable 알아볼 수 없는; 불가사의한

deprecate 비난하다

stolid 둔감한, 무신경한

impassive 무표정한, 아무런 감정이 없는

- The author’s best-selling book on Virginia Woolf is not (i) ___ treatment of her subject; on the contrary, it presents (ii) ___ portrait of the novelist, faults and all. an idealized, an unflinching.

- Scientists at chocolate manufacture attempts to ___ cocoa bean’s chemical composition, so that they can ___ the taste of cocoa bean in order to ___ a failure from cocoa bean suppliers. unlock, synthesize, prevent.

- Although in the mid-1970s nuclear power seemed poised for a still greater role in energy supply, in fact the ___of its prestige had already begun. waning, ebbing.

- Benjamin Franklin's reputation is so much one of appearing scientific investigation with commonsense empiricism that it is somewhat startling to realize how ___ great experiment's mentoring truly was. speculative, conjectural.

- The identity of hominid remains found in a cave in the Altai Mountains was ___ until Paabo and his colleagues ended the speculation by showing that DNA sequences indicated the bones belonged to Neanderthals. conjectural.

- The researcher noted that microbes, although ___, make up far more of the living protoplasm on Earth than all humans, animals and plants combined. diminutive, minuscule.

- Although most land snails are ___, the giant African snail is a notable exception; it can be 15 inches long and weigh 2 pounds. diminutive, minuscule.

Like her literary heroine, George Eliot, Barbara Kingsolvers is an old-fashioned ___, deeply curious about all branches of human learning. polymath.

philistine 속물

tyro 초심자

bring off 해내다

- The woman who brought off this signal ___ achievement, based on three separate but interwoven visit to the Balkans and published just as the Second World War was disclosing itself as conflict of ultimate horror, was born Cicely Fairfield in 1892. She demonstrated early brilliance as reviewer and journalist, soon adopting the name Rebecca West(the heroine of Henrik Ibsen's play Rosersholm). polymathic, encyclopedic.

- It can be (i) ___ to read Margaret Fuller’s travel writing, as she produced accounts of her travel that (ii) ___ conventions of bourgeois travel narrative, often capitulating to the most well- worn clichés of the genre at precisely the moments when she sought most energetically to cast them off in favor of some new, more passionate mode of discernment. frustrating, conform to.

- It is not unusual for American education leaders to hold up another nation as a model for school reform: in the mid-nineteenth century, such figures ___ the professionalism and structure of the Prussian school system. hailed.

- Neuroscientists are excited by technological progress that facilitates brain mapping, the most ___ of them comparing their growing abilities to tremendous advances that led to unimaginable success of the Human Genome Project. sanguine.

- When the atmosphere over the city is at its best, it is peculiarly ___, and this clarity seems to distill the very special beauty of the place. limpid, pellucid.

- Many historians of the ancient world are wary of sounding (i) ___. Write so much as a sentence about the ancient world and the temptation is immediately to (ii) ___ it. Even in cases when the sources for a given event are (iii) ___, uncertainties and discrepancies crop up everywhere. dogmatic, qualify, plentiful.

fusty 퀴퀴한, 구식의

jovial 아주 쾌활한

- A cure for the common cold has been so elusive that is has become a modern symbol of ___. futility, pointlessness.

- In the discussions on international patent law, many (i) ___ issues will probably be pushed far into the future. This cautious approach makes diplomatic sense, since attempts over the past 15 years to reach international agreements on patents have (ii) ___ just such sensitive issues. contentious, foundered on.

convulsion 경련, 경기

- Coagulation factors are useful proteins whose simple names––many are known only by Roman numerals–– ___ their importance and the specificity of their roles in the thinning and clotting of blood. belie, mask.

- In establishing that the dust she had observed constitutes two percent of the mass in the quadrant, the astronomer showed that the dust extreme visual prominence ___ its relatively minor contribution to the total mass of the region. belie, mask.

permeable 투과성의

convolution 대단히 복잡한 것

- The era’s examples of ___ that are cited by the author can be balanced in part by certain examples of dissent during the same period. authoritarianism.

forbearance 관용, 관대

bemoan 한탄하다

- Given our species’ increasing numbers and appetites----which are reflected in and compounded by global climate change---even (i) ___ species are likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. If we are to avoid a calamitous loss of biodiversity, according to Golbe, we cannot simply let nature take its course. Ongoing conversation management is (ii) ___, as we have, in a sense, become nature. And the responsibilities that come with the role cannot be (iii) ___. now common, obligatory, jettisoned.

contrive 용케 ~하다, 어떻게든 ~하다

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  1. gre

    혹시 답도 알고계신가요

    2016.10.25 01:00 [ ADDR : EDIT/ DEL : REPLY ]