독서2016. 10. 17. 05:33

49. "The only way to learn to write is to force yourself to produce a certain number of words on a regular basis."

"All writing is ultimately a question of solving a problem."

50. "What is not agreeable is to switch back and forth."

51. "What annoys us is that the writer never decided what kind of article he wanted to write or how he wanted to approach us."

52. "Every writing project must be reduced before you start to write."

53. "Trust your material if it's taking you into terrain you didn't intend to enter but where the vibrations are good. ... Don't ever become the prisoner of a preconceived plan. Writing is no respecter of blueprints."

55. "There's no pat answer."

56. "Anything will do, as long as it nudges his curiosity and tugs at his sleeve."

59. "One reason for citing this lead is to note that salvation often lies not in the writer's style but in some odd fact he or she was able to discover."

"Every article is strong in proportion to the surplus of details from which you can choose the few that will serve you best-if you don't go on gathering facts forever."

60. "Our daily landscape is thick with absurd messages and portents."

"Try to give you lead a freshness of perception or detail."

62. "But narrative is the oldest and most compelling method of holding someone's attention; everybody wants to be told a story."

63. "Yet there can be no firm rules for how to write a lead."

64. "The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women."

"Like the minister's sermon that builds to a series of perfect conclusions that never conclude, an article that doesn't stop where it should stop becomes a drag and therefore a failure."

65. "These are signals that you are about to repeat in compressed form what you have already said in detail. ... You remind the reader of what can, in sum, be noted. You go gleaning one more time in insights you have already adduced."

"Failure to know where that sentence should occur can wreck an article that until its final stage has been tightly constructed."

66. "If you have presented all the facts and made the point you want to make, look for the nearest exit."

"Ideally they should encapsulate the idea of the piece and conclude with a sentence that jolts us with its fitness or unexpectedness."

67. "Surprise is one of the most refreshing elements in nonfiction writing."

68. "Use active verbs unless there is no comfortable way to get around using a passive verb."

69. "Verbs are the most important of all your tools. ... Many verbs also carry in their imagery or in their sound a suggestion of what they mean: glitter, dazzle, twirl, beguile, scatter, swagger, poke, pamper, vex."

71. "Good writing is lean and confident. ... "Very" is a useful word to achieve emphasis, but far more often it's clutter."

72. "The quickest way out is to break the long sentence into two short sentences, or even three."

73. "[The Dash] One is to amplify or justify in the second part of the sentence a thought you stated in the first part. ... The other use involves two dashes, which set apart a parenthetical thought within a longer sentence."

75. "Always make sure your readers are oriented."

76. "Always use "that" unless it makes your meaning ambiguous."

77. "The reader can't visualize anybody performing some activity."

"Don't get caught holding a bag full of abstract nouns. You'll sink to the bottom of the lake and never be seen again."

78. "Don't inflate an incident to make it more outlandish than it actually was. If the reader catches you in just one bogus statement that you are trying to pass off as true, everything you write thereafter will be suspect. It's too great a risk, and not worth taking."

79. "Your only contest is with yourself."

80. "Short paragraphs put air around what you write and make it look inviting, whereas a long chunk of type can discourage a reader from even starting to read."

84. "Countless sins can be erased by such small changes."

85. "On the contrary, careful writers can't stop fiddling."

"Most rewriting consists of reshaping and tightening and refining the raw material you wrote on your first try."

88. "I like to replace a humdrum word with one that has more precision or color."

89. "The longer I work at the craft of writing, the more I realize that there's nothing more interesting than the truth."

90. "[C]olor is organic to the fact. Your job is to present the colorful fact."

92. "No area of life is stupid to someone who takes it seriously."

233. "Don't alter your voice to fit your subject. Develop one voice that readers will recognize when they hear it on the page, a voice that's enjoyable not only in its musical line but in its avoidance of sounds that would cheapen its tone: breeziness and condescension and cliches."

234. "In fact the opposite is true: the effortless style is achieved by strenuous effort and constant refining. The nails of grammar and syntax are in place and the English is good as the writer can make it."

235. "There's no need to labor all the reasons why this stuff is so terrible."

236. "For writers and other creative artists, knowing what not to do is a major component of taste."

"Taste is an invisible current that runs through writing, and you should be aware of it."

"[W]riting is the expression of every person's individuality, and we know what we like when it comes along."

237. "Notice how incriminating they sound, convicting you of being satisfied to use the same old chestnuts instead of making an effort to replace them with fresh phrases of your own."

238. "Imitation is part of the creative process for anyone learning an art or a craft."

"By reading other writers you also plug yourself into a longer tradition that enriches you. Sometimes you will tap a vein of eloquence or racial memory that gives your writing a depth it could never attain on its own."

240. "Writing that will endure tends to consist of words that are short and strong; words that sedate are words of three, four and five syllables, mostly of Latin origin, many of them ending in "ion" and embodying a vague concept."

241. "It moves us with what it leaves unsaid, touching off echoes in what we already know from our reading, our religion and our heritage."

242. "Go with what seems inevitable in your own heritage. Embrace it and it may lead you to eloquence."

246. "One way to generate confidence is to write about subjects that interest you and that you care about."

247. "If you write about subjects you think you would enjoy knowing about, your enjoyment will show in what you write."

248. "If you want your writing to convey enjoyment, write about people you respect."

249. "Push the boundaries of your subject and see where it takes you."

invidious, prurient, rankle, turn to mush, cumbersome, a pregnant moment, folksy, ingratiate, patronize, smitten by, deride, the fickleness of time, lilts, weather the passage of time, facetious, mirthful, insouciance

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독서2016. 10. 5. 04:07

Introduction by Paul H. Kratoska

Part I. Japan

1. Labor Mobilization in Japan and the Japanese Empire by Paul H. Kratoska

Part II. Manchuria

2. Labor Policy and the Construction Industry in Manchukuo: Systems of Recruitment, Management, and Control by David Tucker

Part III. North China

3. Northern Chinese Laborers and Manchukuo by Ju Zhifen

Part IV. Korea

4. Japan's Korean Soldiers in the Pacific War by Utsumi Aiko

5. Korean Forced Labor in Japan's Wartime Empire by Naitou Hisako

Part V. Taiwan

Part VI. Indonesia

Part VII. Malaya

Part VIII. Philippines

Part IX. Vietnam

Part X. Memory and Reconciliation

16. The Origin and Development of Military Sexual Slavery in Imperial Japan by Chin-Sung Chung

17. History, Memory, Compensation, and Reconciliation: The Abuse of Labor along the Thailand-Burma Railway by E. Bruce Reynolds


xv. "The mobilization of labor was a major feature of the Japanese empire in the 1930s and 1940s, and the number of people forced to work for the Japanese across Asia ran well into the millions. ... By 1944 labor reserves had been used up, and the Japanese turned to forced recruitment. Many workers were sent to distant locations, and a considerable number of them did not return. Theirs is a story of death and dislocation of holocaust proportions, and remarkably it is a story that has received little attention from historians."

"Mortality rates of 30 to 40 percent appear to have been common, but there are few statistics, or even remotely reliable estimates, to indicate how many people died. It is certain from firsthand observations and anecdotal evidence that the numbers were very large."

xvi. "Grief and despair find little place in most historical accounts and are absent from most of the source materials historians use, but the hundreds of thousands of who died were sons, husbands, and fathers, or sometimes daughters, wives, and mothers, and had families awaiting their return."

"The sufferings of European prisoners of war forced to work for the Japanese, most famously on the Thailand-Burma railway, have been well chronicled, but the experiences of Asian laborers remain unstudied. ... Moreover, historians have little material with which to work because the Japanese destroyed the records of their wartime administration immediately after the conflict ended in August 1945."

xvii. "It also offers a harrowing look at the experiences of those recruited to work on Japanese projects. More remains to be done, and it is to be hoped that this volume will prompt further study of the issues it raises. That, however, is not its purpose. The articles assembled here are not anodyne accounts written to fill gaps in the historical record, but compelling stories of a great human tragedy that force readers to consider the war and occupation in a new light."

1. Labor Mobilization in Japan and the Japanese Empire

3. "Between 1937 and 1945 imperial Japan utilized the skills, energy, and physical strength of millions of human beings to prosecute a war of conquest across East and Southeast Asia. ... Korea supplied soldiers, civilian workers for the military, and "comfort women" for brothels used by the troops. ... Although most workers were nominally hired as paid contract laborers, many were recruited under duress, and there was some use of forced labor. The process caused a massive dislocation of people and resulted in a huge death toll."

"In japan and throughout the Japanese empire, economic disruption caused by the war threw substantial numbers of people out of work, creating a pool of labor that Japan was able to tap."

4. "Increasingly, an element of coercion crept into the recruitment process, and eventually the Japanese turned openly to the use of forced labor."

"The impetus for work had to lie elsewhere, in fear and in a desperate effort to survive."

20. "Shortages of labor plagued Japan throughout the war, and toward the end of the conflict the labor situation became very serious."

21. "The Japanese promoted the idea of a Greater East Asia built on a shared Asian identity and called for short-term sacrifices in turn for long-term mutual benefits, or "coprosperity." However, Japanese military administrations seem to have had little confidence in the efficacy of such appeals and used a combination of generous wages and benefits and draconian recruitment measures to secure the labor that was needed. The process caused severe disruption and cost many hundreds of thousands of lives."

4. Japan's Korean Soldiers in the Pacific War

81. "Japan's colonial policy aimed at the assimilation of Koreans, and until the end of the war it was official policy to regard Korean soldiers as Japanese. ... In Indonesia, Japanese-trained Indonesian troops cut a bright swathe in the country's war of independence. The position of Koreans who had served in the Japanese army was very different."

83. "On April 3, 1938, an "army special volunteer system" allowed Koreans to enlist in the Japanese armed forces for the first time."

85. "Military conscription came into force in Korea on August 1, 1943 (under Law Number 4 of March 1, 1943), but it took the government-general of Korea more than one year to complete the preparations."

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독서2016. 9. 29. 22:00


1  Asia's Great Migrations, 1850-1930

2  The Making of Asian Diasporas, 1850-1930

3  War, Revolution, and Refugees, 1930-1950

4  Migration, Development, and the Asian City, 1950-1970

5  Asian Migrants in the Age of Globalization, 1970-2010


p.1 "This book argues that migrants have been central to enduring and significant changes in modern Asian history; to economic and environmental transformations; to the spread of new political ideas and religious practices; to social and demographic change. Until recently, most histories of Asia have emphasized the perspectives of states, empires, and sedentary peoples. This book seeks to place migrants at the heart of modern Asian history."

"Historians have been too quick to project into the past the modern world of nation-states with strict controls over movement into and out of their territories. This book seeks to consider Asian history in more mobile terms, by emphasizing the importance of movement and by seeking to illustrate the connections that migrants made between distant places."

p.2 Who Is a Migrant? "One thing these different kinds of mobility have in common is that they created connections beyond the local. Mobility in its many forms widened people's social networks and their imaginative worlds. ... The inter-regional connections that people forged through migration were both cause and consequence of the expansion of states and markets, the spread of the printing press, and the growth of modern militaries.

"The migration of men for military service spurred the conflicts that displaced many other as refugees. ... The movement of students and pilgrims in search of enlightenment or blessings could turn, unplanned, into long-term settlement."

"Many people descended from migrants continued to maintain cultural, familial, and political links with the lands of their ancestors; to the extent that they did, their lives continued to be shaped by histories of migration. The question of how long a migrant would remain a migrant was not always a matter of choice. Experiences varied. In some cases, migrant origins were erased or forgotten over time, as the descendents of migrants assimilated into local populations. But at other times and in other places, even those who chose to cut their links with the lands of their forebears were reminded constantly of their alien origins - origins that were marked on their identity cards, in the neighbourhoods they lived in, in persistent popular prejudices and stereotypes. In the twentieth-century world of nation-states, migrant origins in the distant past could remain a reason for exclusion or discrimination - even, in extreme cases, expulsion."

p.3 1. The migration of soldiers, sailors, and administrators in the service of states and empires. 2. The migration of large numbers of people as a result of war and political violence: captives, refugees, displaced people. 3. The movements over long distances, but sometimes for short periods, of students, pilgrims, and intellectuals: writers, journalists, publishers, teachers. 4. Labour migration over long distance. 5. Long-distance, often overland, movement for settlement in sparsely populated lands, both state-sanctioned and spontaneous. 6. Seasonal migration for agricultural work, most often over short distances, and involving more women that men. 7. Urbanization.

p.4 "Underlying all of these movements was a fundamental feature of Asian migration until the mid-twentieth century: the tendency toward circular migration, or 'sojourning'. ... But this book suggests that this pattern of circulation was equally characteristic of other streams of Asian migration, including migration from the Indian subcontinent. Here, too, an important story of historical change unfolds: sojourning became easier as transportation became easier and cheaper, and the progressively more complicated, as modern states in the twentieth century made increasingly insistent demands of exclusive loyalty."

"The pattern of sojourning is by no means exclusive to the Asian experience: ... Nevertheless, a far greater proportion of European migrants settled permanently at their destinations compared with Chinese or Indian migrants within Asia: the transience of migration was particularly, but not exclusively, characteristic of the Asian experience."

Explaining Asia's Mobility Revolution. "The traditional picture of Asian societies as static and immobile before European colonization needs revision."

p.5 "In terms of the numbers of people involved, the distances they travelled, and the environmental and economic transformations they brought about, the second half of the nineteenth century represented the start of Asia's mobility revolution."

"This book seeks to avoid the language, common to migration scholarship, of 'push' and 'pull' factors beyond their control. Nevertheless, it is a demonstrable and enduring feature of the history of Asian migration that economic inequality explains both the motivations for migration and the specific patterns of mobility."

p.6 "As post-colonial states consolidated their authority and realised their ambitions for economic and social transformation, they induced or forced millions more to make long journeys in the service of national development, while preventing other kinds of mobility."

"The pace of social and economic transformation increased communities' vulnerability to climatic shock, while also opening up migration as an avenue of escape. ... Social networks, flows of information, and relations of credit turned migration into a viable means of escape from subsistence crisis."

"Later in the twentieth century, the development projects of post-colonial Asia often took the form of an assault on nature. These campaigns displaced millions directly - as refugees from dam-building projects - and indirectly - when those projects wreaked havoc with local environments."

p. 7 Transport, Communications, and Ideas. "once the opening of new transport links allowed an initial wave of migration, this often created a self-sustaining circuit of further migration."

"Transport and communications contracted people's sense of both time and space. This process by which the world has come to seem both smaller and more connected is, of course, what we mean by the term 'globalization', but globalization in Asia has a long history."

Periodization. p.8 "The second period encompasses the middle decades of the twentieth century, from the economic depression of the 1930s to the aftermath of the Second World War and the crucial years of Asia's decolonization. These decades witnessed the disintegration of the system of inter-regional migration that had developed from 1850. ... Migration became a political problem as indigenous nationalist movements mobilized against migrants and outsiders. The second World War broke the links of labour migration altogether, while stimulating the mass movement of refugees. The creation of new states after 1945 produced a further wave of forced migration."

p.9 The Debates. "The history of Asian migration has stimulated lively debate, even as migration has been under-emphasized in larger narratives of modern Asian history."

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독서2016. 9. 29. 02:24


"These essays capture a moment in a continuing, broadening debate over how, and by what paths, ideas travel across Asia and how they are reshaped by myriad encounters along the way."


p.1 "In thinking about spaces of interaction, we aim to broaden the focus of discussion to include non-elite Asians and their interactions with each other. By focusing on spaces-real and virtual-these articles begin to conceive new ways of capturing changing geographical imaginations and the fluidity of borders and boundaries across Asia."

p.2 "Research on Asia's many diasporas has enriched the older literature on migration to illuminate the links of kinship, trade, and information that connect locations across Asia, and beyond. Many recent works on particular diasporas have tended to look inwards-at how distinctive diasporic cultures maintained a sense of 'home' while abroad-whereas our focus has been on how different diasporas have come into contact with each other in particular places, often for the first time."

"Pursuing the theme of sites of interaction in an Asian setting allows us to interrogate assumptions about the boundaries of regions and sub-regions. ... Thinking in terms of particular spaces allows us to refine what we mean by 'inter-Asian connections': by focusing on the agency of particular sites in producing different modes of interaction, the articles in this book are alert to the limits as well as the extent of inter-Asian connections."

p.3 "She writes compellingly of the history of Asian diasporas 'finding each other, colliding, converging, interacting, while maintaining their distinct identities'."

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독서2016. 8. 25. 02:31

"To study history is always to seek in some degree to get beyond the limitations and preoccupations of the present; it demands for success an effort of self-transcendence."

Aruthur O. Lovejoy, 1939.
William A. Williams, History As A Way of Learning (New York: New Viewpoints, 1973), p. 5.

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독서/Idea of Socialism2016. 8. 13. 19:27

"The Manifesto being our joint production, I consider myself bound to state that the fundamental proposition, which froms its nucleus, belongs to Marx. That proposition is: that in every historical epoch, the prevailing mode of economic production and exchange, and the social organization necessarily following from it, form the basis upon which is built up, and from which alone can be explained, the political and intellectual history of that epoch; that consequently the whole history of mankind (since the dissolution of primitive tribal society, holding land in common ownership) has been a history of class struggles, contests between exploiting and exploited, ruling and oppressed classes; that the history of these class struggles forms a series of evolutions in which, nowadays, a stage has been reached where the exploited and oppressed class - the proletariat - cannot attain its emancipation from the sway of the exploiting and ruling class - the bourgeoisie - without, at the same time, and once and for all, emancipating society at large from all exploitation, oppression, class distinctions and class struggles."

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독서2016. 8. 10. 08:41

Odd A. Westad, "Introduction,Odd A. Westad ed., Brothers in Arms, Washington, D.C., and Stanford, Calif.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Stanford University Press, 1998, p. 1-46.


Writing the Alliance

The Past, 1917-1946

Origins, 1946-1950

War, 1950-1953

Ascent, 1953-1957

Descent, 1958-1960

Breakdown, 1960-1963

Causes and Causalities

"The different perceptions of the alliance's domestic and international significance played a fundamental part in this collapse, as did the whole specter of cultural differences between Russians and Chinese that complicated day-to-day cooperation." p. 3.

"The tricky concept of culture in international relations does have the advantage that it slips past ideology to form general patterns of behavior, texts, myths, and symbols with an intrinsic value to a social or ethnic group." p. 3.

"In order to understand what happened, we also need to look more closely at the directions of Soviet and Chinese domestic politics and - even more important - at how their leaders viewed the interaction between the two countries on a whole range of specific issues." p. 4.

The Founding of the Chinese Communist Party - 1921. p.5.

"Soviet control of the CCP was always tenuous, even during the 1920s, when the party could operate legally and when both it and its rival, the Guomindang (GMD), received Soviet advisors." p. 5.

"In addition, Soviet preoccupation with East Asia declined dramatically as tensions in Europe grew during the early 1930s." p. 6. (Benjamin Yang, From Revolution to Politics)

"The Kremlin preferred to continue dealing both with the CCP and the GMD government, thereby getting maximum leverage for its own short-term aims in China." p. 8

"The meetings in Moscow between June 26 and August 14, 1949 - in which Liu, Gao Gang, and Wang Jiaxiang were the main participants on the CCP side, primarily meeting with Stalin, CCP-Soivet Molotov, and Mikoyan - were breakthroughs for cooperation." p. 9.

"Mao's main priority was establishing a new relationship between the two countries." p. 11.

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독서/DPRK2016. 8. 10. 01:02

Nobuo Shimotomai, "Kim Il Sung's Balancing Act between Moscow and Beijing, 1956-1972," Tsuyoshi Hasegawa ed., The Cold War in East Asia, Washington, D.C., and Stanford, Calif.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Stanford University Press, 2011, p. 122-151.


Kim Il Sung and the New Soviet Leadership before the August-September Crisis

Foreign Influence in the KWP

In the Shadow of 1956

The Sino-Soviet Split

Treaties of Alliance with Moscow and with Beijing

North Korea's Policy toward the Developing World, and Moscow's Role

Lips and Teeth: Again with Mao

Pyongyang's Uneasy Partnership with Moscow, October 1964 to 1968

The Pueblo Incident

Kim Il Sung, Sino-Soviet Military Conflict, and U.S.-Chinese Rapprochement

Kim's Proposal for Confederation


"This chapter examines how Kim Il Sung maneuvered between Moscow and Beijing, exploiting the emerging Sino-Soviet conflict, in order to consolidate his power and pursue his own foreign policy." p. 123.

"Even the Stalinist Viacheslav Molotov had advised Nam Il, the DPRK's foreign minister, in April 1954 that the Koreans should pay more attention to the material needs of the population." p. 123. (AVPRF, f. 102, op. 10, p. 52, d. 8, ll. 66-67.)

"And the more Moscow and Beijing clashed, the more each wanted to draw Kim's government into its camp." p. 129.

"On April 28, Yi Sin Pkhar Submitted an earnest request to Gromyko that the USSR aid the DPRK in the peaceful utilization of nuclear technology." p. 130. (AVPRF, f. 102, op. 14, p. 75, d. 4, ll. 3-5.)

"In March 1959, the DPRK government had originally planned a Second Five-Year Plan from 1961 to 1965, but following Khrushchev's sudden adoption of a Seven-Year Plan, Kim followed the Soviet example in May 1960 and set the new time frame as 1961-67." p.132. (Shimotomai, Mosukuwa to Kin Nissei, 183; AVPRF, f. 102, op. 15, p. 83, d. 32, l. 2.)

The Treaty of Alliance with Moscow was concluded on July 6, 1961, and with China [The Sino-DPRK Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance] on July 11. p. 134-135.

"The treaty with the Soviet Union was effective for only ten years, whereas the treaty with China was effective for an indefinite period." p. 136. (Shimotomai, Mosukuwa to Kin Nissei, 293.)

"The tense relationship between Beijing and Moscow came to a head in the fall of 1961." p. 136.

"Puzanov's departure from Pyongyang in June 1962 marked the end of the generally benign relationship between the USSR and DPRK that lasted from 1957 to 1962." p. 137.

"The underlying reason for Kim's sharp turn toward Beijing was revealed in October 1962, when the PRC and the DPRK renegotiated their border issues, which resulted in the PRC-DPRK Border Treaty signed by Zhou Enlai and Kim Il Sung on October 12." p. 138.

V. P. Moskovskii. p. 138. (AVPRF, f. 102, op. 18, p. 93, d. 5)

"In the years 1963-64, the DPRK press was busy criticizing "revisionism" and denouncing those who wanted to negotiate with the United States." p. 139.

"Khrushchev's sudden departure form the political scene in October 1964 marked the end of the adversarial relationship between Moscow and Pyongyang." p. 139.

"Pyongyang stopped its anti-Soviet campaign soon after Khrushchev's ouster." p. 140.

"The Chinese "Great Cultural Revolution," which began in 1966, added another dimension to Asia's Cold War political landscape." p. 140.

"Further developments came in December 1966, when Brezhnev met with Kim Il Sung, first in Vladivostok and then in Moscow, in a series of high-level talks." p. 141-142.

"The Russian Foreign Ministry's archival documents contain very few substantial materials on bilateral relations during the period when N. G. Sudalikov served as the ambassador to Pyongyang from 1967 until 1974." p. 144.

"When the Sino-Soviet conflict was elevated to military confrontation, both Moscow and Beijing became more eager to recruit Pyongyang to their side." p. 144.

"He successfully maneuvered between Moscow and Beijing and maintained his independence, taking advantage of the Sino-Soviet conflict without completely committing himself to either side." p. 147.

"Kim's foreign gestures and moves were sometimes symbolic, were not substantial, and were lacking in any real commitment."  p. 147.

"Still, as long as the United States and Japan were regarded as hostile forces, and while the Big Brothers were turning out to be unreliable partners, Kim had to pursue "peaceful coexistence" with the ROK for cosmetic, and perhaps domestic, consumption."  p. 147.

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독서2016. 6. 30. 00:22

여러분이 앞으로 쓸 논문의 가치를 판정하는 것은 세미나의 지도교수인 내가 아니다. 앞으로 여러분의 논문을 읽을 '아직 존재하지 않는 독자들'이다. 그 사람들을 위해 논문을 써야 한다. 리포트는 아무리 저급한 내용을 써도, 아무리 인용 방식이 서툴러도, 데이터를 잘못 옮기는 실수를 저질러도, 그것을 읽고 해를 입는 독자는 (절망적인 기분에 빠질 담당 교수를 제외하면) 아무도 없다. 하지만 논문은 그렇지 않다. 만약 여러분이 인용 출처의 페이지 수를 틀리거나 책 제못을 잘못 표기하면 후배들은 출전을 찾기 위해 몇 시간이나 도서관을 헤매야 할지도 모른다. 논리적으로 기술하지 않으면 도대체 무슨 말을 하려는지 알기 위해 같은 페이지를 몇 번이나 들추어 보아야 할지 모른다. 논문의 질이 좋든 나쁘든, 그것에 의해 영향을 받는 것은 낯조차 모르는 독자들이다. 여러분이 질이 높은 논문을 쓰면 그 이로움의 덕을 입는 것은 낯모르는 독자들이다. 그들은 여러분이 '질 좋은 내용'을 전달해 주기를 기대한다. 논문을 쓸 때 여러분은 최종 소비자가 아니라 전달자인 것이다.


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독서/DPRK2016. 6. 14. 04:29

정대화, "북한의 사회주의건설사."

395. 이 시기는 북한의 중요한 특징이자 이후 북한사회의 형성에 결정적인 영향을 미치는 당의 정치적 강화 (단일한 정치역량의 구축과 당의 영도적 역할의 강화), 사상의 강조 (주체사상의 제기와 체계화), 인민대중의 조직적 동원 (천리마운동), 주체노선의 제기 (중소대립과 중소의 북한 내정간섭 및 원조의 감소에 따른 자주노선 선언), 자립적 민족경제건설의 고창 등은 모두 전후 북한이 처한 어려운 상황의 반영이었던 동시에 이것을 극복하고자 했던 정치적 노력의 산물이기도 했다.

396. [1953년 8월 5일] 제2기 6차 중앙위원회 전원회의에서 김일성의 '모든 것을 전후인민경제 복구발전을 위하여'라는 제목의 연설.

402. 4차당대회에서 제1차 7개년계획 (1961~67)의 시행 채택. 사회주의 공업화의 전면적 실현을 중심과제로 설정하여 기술혁명과 문화혁명의 수행에 강조점을 두었음.

403. 1960년 2월 평남 강서군 청산리 협동농장에서 보름 동안 현지 지도 경험을 보고한 '강서군당 사업지도에서 얻은 교훈에 대하여'가 '청산리정신'으로 일반화되었음. 천리마운동의 혁명적 군중노선을 사회주의 건설의 새로운 요구에 맞게 구체화시킨 대중지도 방법으로서, 관료주의와 주관주의 및 형식주의를 퇴치하는 데 목적을 두었음.

404. 1961년 11월의 당 전원회의에서 경제관리와 지도의 근본적 개선에 대한 과업 제시. 12월 김일성이 대안전기공장 현지지도하고 그 결과를 대안의 사업체계로 체계화하였음. 민주개혁 이후 적용되어온 기존의 지배인 유일관리제를 대신해서 공장 당위원회의 집단적 관리를 규정한 데 있음.

405. 1962년 12월 제5차 전원회의 통해 '경제건설과 국방건설의 병진정책'을 정책노선으로 채택. 1966년의 제2차 당대표자회에서 관철이 재확인되었고, 그 결과 이 정책에 반대하는 입장 취했던 박금철과 이효순 등이 보수주의자, 소극분자로 비판받고 정치적으로 퇴진했으며, 1968년 푸에블로호 사건으로 정책의 정당성이 일부 현실적으로 검증되기도 했지만, 이것이 경제건설에 미친 영향은 대단했음.

407. 1970년 11월 5차당대회에서 6개년계획 (1971~76)의 과제 제시.

409. 1977년에 채택한 제2차 7개년계획 (1978~84)을 계승.

Posted by 사용자 Л

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